ákpáwè [ák͡páwɛ] adv.
“were it that . . . ” e.g. akpawe i mwẹn igho, i gha dẹ imọto ― “were it that-I-had-money,I-would-buy-a-car: if I had money, I would buy a car.”
awarọkpa [àwàɽɔ́kpá] adv.
immediately; at once (also ọwarọkpa).
banbaan [bã́bã́ã̀] adv.
immediately; right now. (also: banbanna and banbanbanban).
bẹkun [bɛ̀kṹ] adv.
1. (usually with vbs such as ru; bọ; re, etc.) ― incompletely:
ọ bọ owa nii bẹkun serae ye evba“he built that house half-way and left it there”
2. (usually with the vb. hoo: “to look for”) abortively; unsuccessfully:
iran hoo ẹre bẹkun“they searched for him unsuccessfully; i.e. he is nowhere to be found”
buan [bũ̀ã́] adv.
sufficiently; in more than enough quantity or value:
ọ winna buan“he worked sufficiently or hard enough.”
da5 [dá] adv.
indicates that an action has just been begun or completed; or that it has just taken place:
Te Ozo da rre na.“Ozo has only just arrived.”
da6 [dá] adv.
(usually with expression vbs. such as tie, van, go, etc.): loudly:
Ọ da tie ẹre“He called loudly for him”
dandaandan [dã́dã́ã́dã́] adv.
exactly; precisely (of time or location).
do4 [dó] adv.
stealthily; secretly:
Ọ do ta ma rẹn“She told him secretly.”
doo3 [dòó] adv.
serves as a sequential marker in a narrative or discourse:
iran ghi se evba, iran na doo tue evbo hia; iran na doo tota . . .“when they got there, they then greeted everybody; they then sat down.”
dududu [dúdúdú] adv.
very dark:
Ọ siere dududu“It is extremely dark.”
egbe4 [èg͡bé] adv.
in spite of; though:
Egbe ne i ya khama ọnrẹn ighẹ i dee, i ma ye vba ọre vbe owa“In spite of the fact that I had told him that I was coming, I still did not meet him at home.”
emwan [èɱã́] adv.
enamwunsin [ènáɱṹsĩ̀] adv.
a long period of time back, for long ago:
enamwunsin ọ ghise edinranit is a long time since he got here: He has been here for long
enenẹ [ènẽ́nɛ̃̀] adv.
in groups of four; fours.
enia [ènyã́] adv.
thus; so; this manner.
erriọ [èryɔ́] adv.
thus; so; like that:
vbene u gie ẹrẹ, erriọ ẹre ọ wa gha ye“Just as you described it, so it was exactly.”
èveva [èvévà] adv.
in pairs; two’s.
evba [èʋáà] adv.
over there; there:
mu ye evba: “place it over there.”
ẹdẹbiri [ɛ̀dɛ́biɽi] adv.
all day:
ẹdẹ biri ẹre ọ wa ya vbe odọ“It was the entire day that he spent over there; i.e. He stayed there all day.”
ẹdẹdẹmwẹndẹ [ɛ̀dɛ́dɛ́ɱɛ̃̀dɛ̀] adv.
forever; ever.
Ghẹ rha ẹdẹdẹmwẹndẹ“don’t steal ever.”
ẹ̀dẹgbe [ɛ̀dɛ́gbè] adv.
1. daybreak;
2. overnight.
ẹ́dẹgbe [ɛ́dɛ̀gbé] adv.
ten days duration.
ẹdẹgbedẹgbe [ɛ̀dɛ́gbedɛ́gbè] adv.
everyday; daily (also ẹdẹdẹgbe; and ẹdẹgbegbe).
ẹdẹgbegbe [ɛ̀dɛ́gbégbè] adv.
everyday; daily (also ẹdẹdẹgbe; and ẹdẹgbedẹgbe).
ẹdẹha [ɛ́dɛ̀há] adv.
three days duration:
ẹdẹha ọ ya ru ẹre foo“He took three days to complete it.”
ẹdẹhan [ɛ́dɛhã̀] adv.
six days duration.
ẹdẹhanrẹ [ɛ̀dɛ̀hã́rɛ̀] adv.
six days hence; in six days’ time.
ẹdẹhinrin [ɛ́dɛ̀hĩ̀rĩ́] adv.
nine days duration.
ẹdẹhinrọn [ɛ́dɛ̀hĩ́ɽɔ̃̀] adv.
seven days duration.
ẹdẹhinrọnrẹ [ɛ̀dɛ̀hĩ̀ɽɔ̃́ɽɛ̀] adv.
seven days hence; in a week’s time.
ẹdẹikẹdẹ [ɛ̀dɛíkɛ̀dɛ́] adv.
any day; whatever day:
ẹdẹikẹdẹ ne ọ rhirhi nọọ, u ghi rhie nẹẹ“any day he asks at all, give it to him.”
ẹdẹnẹ [ɛ́dɛ̀nɛ́] adv.
four days duration.
ẹdẹrẹnrẹn [ɛ́dɛ̀ɽɛ̃̀ɽɛ̃́] adv.
eight days duration.
ẹdẹruanrẹ [ɛdɛɽ̃wãɽɛ] adv.
eight days hence; in eight days time.
ẹdẹrriọ [ɛ́dɛ́ryɔ̀] adv.
the other day; that day.
Ẹdẹ ne i miọẹn, ẹdẹrriọ ẹre ọ sẹ Ẹdo“The day I saw him, that day he arrived in Benin: That day I saw him was when he arrived in Benin.”
ẹdẹsẹn [ɛ́dɛ̀sɛ̃́] adv.
five days duration.
ẹdẹva [ɛ́dɛ̀vá] adv.
two days duration.
ẹghẹikẹghẹ [ɛ̀ɣɛ̀íkɛ́ɣɛ̀] adv.
any time; whenever.
ẹghẹnẹdẹ [ɛ̀ɣɛ̀nɛ́dɛ̀] adv.
in the olden days; in the past.
ẹghẹso [ɛ̀ɣɛ̀só] adv.
sometimes; occasionally.
ẹse [ɛ̀sé] adv.
well, properly:
ọ le evbare na ẹse“She cooked this meal properly”
ẹsẹse [ɛ̀sɛ́sè] adv.
very well; very much:
ọ yẹ mwẹn ẹsẹse“It delights me very much.”
ẹsẹsẹmwẹnse [ɛ̀sɛ́sɛ́ɱɛ̃̀sé] adv.
very much; exceedingly; extremely:
Ọ ghaan ẹsẹsẹmwẹnse“It is expensive very much: it is extremely expensive”^
fẹfẹrẹfẹ [fɛ́fɛ́ɽɛ́fɛ́] adv.
(usually with the verb fo) entirely; completely; finally: (also, fẹrẹ)
Ọ rri ọre foo fẹfẹrẹfẹHe ate it up completely
fẹrẹ [fɛ́ɽɛ́] adv.
completely; entirely:
Tue ẹre yọọ fẹrẹ“Pour it in completely: i.e. pour it all in”
fẹrẹfẹrẹ [fɛ̀ɽɛ̀fɛ̀ɽɛ̀] adv.
(occurs with the verb mu) very sharp:
Erọ na mu fẹrẹfẹrẹ“This knife is very sharp.”
fiẹnfiẹnfiẹn [fỹɛ̃́fỹɛ̃́fỹɛ̃́] adv.
describes a sharp sucking noise, as that produced when one tries to suck at bone marrow; or the squeaking noise of house mice.
fii [fìí] adv.
Ọ de fii ẹzẹ“He fell into the river.”
foo [fòó] adv.
completely; totally:
I tie ebe nii foo“I read that book completely”
gaigai [gàigài] adv.
describes a manner of walking: with wide confident strides.
gaingain [gã̀ĩgã̀ĩ] adv.
describes gait: with an air of arrogance.
gegeege [gégéégé] adv.
(usually introduced with the vb. ye): describes something that is in a heap, that is, so plentiful that it is in a heap:
Ize ne ọ dẹe ye gegeege“The rice she bought is in a heap.”
gele [gèlè] adv.
really; indeed; actually:
Ọ gele sẹ evba“He actually reached there.”
gelegele [gèlègèlè] adv.
in fact; in truth.
gẹdẹgẹdẹ [gɛ̀dɛ̀gɛ̀dɛ̀] adv.
usually used as an emphatic modifier after personal prons.:
me gẹdẹgẹdẹ?: “my very self?” i.e. do you actually mean me?
gẹngẹnẹngẹn [gɛ̃́gɛ̃́ɛ̃́gɛ̃́] adv.
(usually introduced by the vb. ye) very tight; bloated ―
Ẹko ẹre ye gẹngẹnẹngẹn“His belly looks bloated.”
gẹnnẹ [gɛ̃́nɛ̃́] adv.
not at all:
Erhọkpa ma de fua gẹnnẹ“None dropped at all.”
gidigbi [gìdìgbì] adv;
firm and strong.
ginna [gĩ̀nã́] adv.
against; to:
Ọ gba ẹre ginna erhan“He tied him to a tree”
girri/grri [gìrì/grì] adv.
describes motion: sudden or unexpected motion.
gọlọgọlọ [gɔ̀lɔ̀gɔ̀lɔ̀] adv.
describes a manner of walking: with graceful gait.
guẹzẹguẹzẹ [gwɛ̀zɛ̀gwɛ̀zɛ̀] adv.
(usually with the verb rhia or kulo): describes degree: completely; totally; entirely.
Ọmọ na wa kulo guẹzẹguẹzẹ“This child is spoiled completely. i.e. The child is very badly behaved.”
gba1 [g͡bá] adv.
indicates that the action in the main vb. was performed collectively:
Iran gba rrievbare“They ate together”
gbaghada [g͡bàɣàdà] adv.
describes a manner of falling: like the fall of something with branches or extensions (e.g. a person falling from a height with the limbs spread out).
gbaigbai1 [g͡bàig͡bài] adv.
with the verb yunnu: to open and close repeatedly; to gasp:
ọ ghi yunnu gbaigbai vbene ọ khian wu“He is now gasping like someone about to die.”
gbaigbai2 [g͡bàig͡bài] adv.
describes a manner of walking: with confident strides: ọ gha ze owe gbaigbai: “He is striding confidently”.
gbe8 [g͡bé] adv.
1. very well; very much:
ọ mose gbe“She is very beautiful”
2. excessively; too much.
Ọghue bun gbe“Yours are too plentiful i.e. Yours are more than you should have.”
gbegbeegbe [g͡bég͡béég͡bé] adv.
all (without exception); totally:
Iran hia kpaa gbegbeegbe“They all left totally.”
gbei [g͡beí] adv.
usually occurs after a clause or sentence to denote that the action expressed by the verb in the clause/sentence was performed in vain:
Vbene iran gualọ ọre sẹ, gbei, a ma miọẹn“In spite of how hard they looked for it, it was in vain; it was not found.”
gbẹu [g͡bɛ̀u] adv.
describes a sudden and hard fall.
gbidii [g͡bídíí] adv.
with the verb (hunwan): mute; without uttering a sound.
I tuẹ ọre: ọ hunwan gbidii ― “I greeted him; he remained dead silent.”
gbìdii [g͡bìdìì] adv.
describes the sound of something heavy, such as a tree falling into water.
gbigbigbi [g͡bìg͡bìg͡bì] adv.
1. the sound of a forceful knock on the door;
2. the movement of a strong wind or storm.
gbighidi [g͡bìɣìdì] adv.
describes the falling of a big and heavy object.
gbotọ2 [g͡bótɔ̀] adv.
(< gbe ― otọ): against the ground; down:
Ọ de gbotọ: “It fell down”; “it dropped”
gbọọọ [g͡bɔ̀ɔ̀ɔ̀] adv.
staring foolishly; looking agape.
gbukegbuke [g͡búkég͡búké] adv.
describes a revolting smell:
Ọ wia gbukegbukeIt smells very badly
gbuu [g͡bùù] adv.
describes a bad smell; (e.g. of fermented cassava.).
ghanghanghan [ɣã̀ɣã̀ɣã̀] adv.
of weather: to be very hot and bright and by implication uncomfortable:
Ehe hia wa ye ghanghanghan“Everywhere is very uncomfortably hot.”
gheghe [ɣèéɣé] adv.
suddenly; unexpectedly:
Ọ gheghe lẹ fua“He simply ran away unexpectedly.”
ghẹrẹghẹrẹghẹrẹ [ɣɛ́ɽɛ́ɣɛ̀ɽɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ́] adv.
describes a manner of operation: unsteadily, as though unsure of a goal or target; without enthusiasm or zeal:
Iwinna ne a mu nẹẹn ru, ọ gha ru ẹre ghẹrẹghẹrẹghẹrẹ“The work he was given to do, he is doing without enthusiasm.”
ghirighiri [ɣìɽìɣìɽì] adv.
describes something very hot:
Ame na ton ghirighiri“This water is very hot (like boiling water).”
he2 [hé] adv.
(occurs in negative sentences): as yet:
I ma he kpaọ“I did not leave as yet; i.e. I have not yet left.”
I i he kpao“^I do not leave as yet; i.e. I will not leave as yet.”
hẹẹ3 [hɛ́ɛ] adv.
the second part of the interrogative formula for “how” questions:
vbe-hẹẹ?: vbe ọ kha hẹẹ? ― “How did he speak: what did he say?”
vbe ọ ru hee?“How did he behave?”
hẹnnẹdẹn [hɛ̃́nɛ̃́dɛ̃́] adv.
safely; wholesomely.
hiehie [hìéhìé] adv.
(occurs in questions or negative sentences only) at all:
Ọ ma hiehie ra?“Is it good at all?”
Ẹo, ẹ i ma hiehie“No, it’s not good at all.”
hunhunhun [hṹhṹhṹ] adv.
(with the verb gui ― to grumble) describes the indistinct hum of muttering:
Ọ gha gui vba hunhunhun“He is there muttering indistinctly (like a bee).”
hurọọ [hùrɔ̀ɔ̀] adv.
describes a dull appearance; lifeless and dull.
ibiba [íbíbá] adv.
especially; in particular:
Gbe iran hia, ibiba enọdiọn ne ọ rrọọBeat all of them, especially the oldest one among them
inugba [ínúg͡bá] inter. phr.
1. (< inu-igba): how many times;
2. adv. at any time; whenever:
Inugba ne o rhirhi miẹ mwẹn, te ọ gha tuẹ mwẹn“Whenever he saw me, he must greet me.”
iyekiyeke [ìyèkíyèké] adv.
iyekiyeke ọ ru ghe“He is always doing backward, i.e. He does not make progress”
kadesẹ [kádèsɛ̀] adv.
(< ke2 ― adesẹ). to be located between; to be in the middle of; to be at the centre of. (also kadesẹneva).
kadesẹneva [kàdèsɛ̀névà] adv.
cf. kadesẹ.
kakabọ [kàkàbɔ́] adv.
very much; exceedingly:
Ọ kakabọ tan: “He is very tall.”
kankanankan [kã́kã́ã́kã́] adv.
1. (with van: “to shout”): loudly;
2. (with gba: “to tie”) tightly, firmly:
Ọ ya irri gba ẹre kankanankan“He tied it with a rope very firmly”
3. (with bi or siere: “dark”): profoundly:
Ọ bi kankanankan: “It is profoundly dark”
katekate [kátékáté] adv.
especially; particularly:
Iwinna rẹn keghi yẹ arowa ọre ẹsẹse, katekate ne obọ na wa vbe kẹ ọre“His work was pleasing to his master very much, especially as he was also very fast.”
kẹeke [kɛékè] adv.
(< ke-ẹre-ke) along with; together with;
Ozo kẹeke amwẹn ọnrẹn ẹre ọ gba gha rrie ugbo“Ozo together with his wife it was that went to the farm: It was Ozo and his wife that went together to the farm.”
kẹkẹrẹkẹ [kɛ̀kɛ̀ɽɛ́kɛ̀] adv.
describes the crowing of a rooster.
kiekie [kyékyè] adv.
(< ke ― iyeke) to be last (in doing something)
Rẹn ọ kiekie rre. “He was the last to come.”
kiokiokio [kyòkyòkyò] adv.
describes a peel of laughter.
kisi [kìsì] adv.
(with saan ― “to jump”) smartly; nimbly:
Ọ sanrẹn kisi: “He jumped nimbly”
koikoi [koikoi] adv.
describes the sound of the pestle hitting the mortar during the pounding of yam or other meal.
kọnyọn [kɔ̃̀ỹɔ̃̀] adv.
describes a kind of look (occurs with ghee: to look) to look at with an evil eye; to glare at:
Ọ gha ghe mwẹn kọnyọn“He is glaring at me.”
kuakuakua [kwàkwàkwà] adv.
describes a peal of laughter.
kue2 [kwé] adv.
it occurs before a verb to convert the clause into a question requiring comfirmation:
Ọ kue rre? “Did he come at all?”
Ọ kue rri evbare“Did he eat anything?”
Ẹẹn, ọ rri ekherhe“Yes, he ate a little.”
kugbakẹghẹrẹ [kúgbakɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ] adv.
cf. ukugbakẹghẹrẹ.
kugbe2 [kùgbé] adv.
kukuku [kùkùkù] adv.
describes the look of sprouting new leaves:
Ebe erhan na wa họọn kukuku: “The leaves of this tree have spouted in swarms.”
khian2 [xyã́] adv.
indicates that the action in the main verb continues over a period of time:
Ọ viẹ khianHe is crying along
Ọ rhulẹ khian: he is running along
khirhikhirhi [xìřìxìřì] adv.
in a hurry; hurriedly:
Ọ lee ẹre khirhikhirhi“He cooked it in a hurry”
khọrọ [xɔ̀ɽɔ́] adv.
excessively; too much:
Ọvbokhan na viẹ khọrọ: “This child cries too much.”
kpakpakpa [k͡pàk͡pàk͡pà] adv.
describes the friskiness of an excited person or animal:
Ọ fi kpakpakpa“He is darting up and down excitedly.”
kpasi [k͡pàsì] adv.
describes a manner of standing: firmly and upright:
Ọ mudia kpasi“He stood up straight and firm.”
kpiii [kpììì] adv.
describes a loud applause by a crowd. (also tiii).
kpoo2 [k͡pòò] adv.
describes intensity of brightness, (e.g. of a flame):
Ẹrhẹn baa kpoo“The fire is flaming very brightly.”
kpọkpọọkpọ [k͡pɔ́kpɔ́ɔ́kpɔ́] adv.
(usually with hunwan: to be silent) total silence:
Iran hunwan kpọkpọọkpọ“They maintained total silence.”
lẹu [lɛ̀u] adv.
describes the sound made by a heavy object when it drops and hits the ground.
Ọ de lẹu“It fell heavily”
ma5 [mã́] adv.
the neg. particle in clauses with past or perfect tense meaning:
I ma yo: “I did not go.”
I ma he yo“I have not yet gone”
mobọ [mòbɔ́] adv.
very much; very well:
Evbare na mobọ rhiẹnrhiẹn“This meal is very delicious”
na2 [nã́] adv.
sequential marker: then; and then:
Ọ ghi tuẹ iran nẹ, ọ na tota: ― “After he had greeted them, he then sat down.”
na [nã́] adv.
1. occurs in relative clauses in which the relation is either temporal or locational:
Ẹghẹ ne ọ na rre, ma ma miẹ ọnrẹn“At the time when he came, we did not see him.”
Ọ khama ima ehe ne ọ na miẹ ọnrẹn“She told us the place where she saw him.”
namwunsin [náɱṹsĩ̀] adv.
― cf. enamwunsin.
3 [nè] adv.
so that; that:
Lare ne i khama ruẹn“Come so that I may tell you (something).”
nẹ2 [nɛ́] adv.
Ọ wu nẹ ra? “Has he died already?”
nẹkpẹnnẹkpẹn [nɛ̃̀kpɛ̃̀nɛ̃̀kpɛ̃̀] adv.
gradually, cautiously:
Si irri nii nẹkpẹnnẹkpẹn ne ẹ ghe fian“Pull that rope cautiously so that it won’t cut.”
nia [nĩ̀ã́] adv.
1. now; at this time:
ọ sẹtin gha khian nẹ niaHe is now able to walk already
2. at last, finally:
Eban i ghi doo mioẹn nia“It is now that I have finally found it.”^
(nia never occurs in utterance initial position).
ọghesi [ɔ́ɣésì] adv.
very much; exceedingly:
iran gbẹe ọghesi“They flogged him very much.”
ọkade-ọkade [ɔ̀kádéɔkade] adv.
step by step; gradually.
panpanpan [pã́pã́pã́] adv.
describes a quality of noise, such as the blast of an automobile horn:
Ọ gha tu panpanpan“He is crying, making a flat and loud noise.”
pepepe [pépèpé] adv.
describes a general friskiness or liveliness:
Ọ gha dan khian pepepe“He is hopping friskily along.”
pẹrẹrẹ [pɛ̀ɽɛ̀ɽɛ̀] adv.
describes the gliding motion of a bird in flight:
Ọ tin fua pẹrẹrẹ“It flew away in a glide.”
pupupu [pùpùpù] adv.
describes the fluttering of a large bird in a short distance flight:
Ọ gha gbe ifuẹn pupupu“It is fluttering its wings.”
ra [ɽá] adv.
inceptive formative which indicates that an action is about to begin:
Ọ ra kpaọ“He is about to depart.”
reghe [ɽéɣé] adv.
describes something that is very high up:
Ọ rhie rrọ reghe vbe odukhunmwun“He hung very high above (also reghereghe).”
reghereghe [ɽéɣéɽéɣé] adv.
1. very high; far beyond reach;
2. (of eyes): deep-set.
rerere [ɽéɽéɽé] adv.
describes a very high pitched sound ―
Ọ da van rerere“He gave vent to a loud shrill.”
rua1 [ɽùá] adv.
indicates that the action in the verb with which it co-occurs was performed to the extreme limit:
Ọ bun mwẹn obọ rua“He broke my hand completely.”
(Other forms of the adverb are ruan; -uan; -ua, -a).
rhanmwẹn [řã́ɱɛ̃̀] adv.
“to the extent that”; “so much so” (usually occurs in a negative clause):
Ei rhulẹ rhanmwẹn ne obọ ghẹ vba ọre“He cannot run so much (so fast) that he would not be caught.”
rhanrhananrhan [řã́řã́ã́řã́] adv.
very loudly:
Ọ vaẹn rhanrhananrhan“He shouted very loudly.”
rhee [řèé] adv.
even though; though:
Ọ rhee yẹ mwẹn, sokpan ii khian sẹtin dọe“Even though I like it, I will however be unable to buy it.”
rherhe [řeře] adv.
quickly, early, in good time:
Ọ rherhe kpaọ“He left in good time.”
U ghi rherhe rre“Arrive early”
(As part of the greeting: U rherhe) “farewell”; “safe-journey”, etc.
rhia [řìá] adv.
wastefully; wrongly:
Ọ lo ígho hia ne a mu nẹẹn rhia“He spent all the money he was given wastefully.”
rhinrinrin [řĩr̃ĩ́r̃ĩ́] adv.
(of time) continuously; non-stop.
Te iran ye khẹẹ ọre rhinrinrin do sẹ ẹre na“They are still waiting for him continuously up to this day.”
rhirhi [řĩ́řĩ́] adv.
expresses the general adverbial meaning shared by the following Eng. pronouns: whatever, whoever, whenever, however: ever:
Eghe nẹ ọ rhirhi khọn ruẹn“whenever you like”
omwan ne ọ rhirhi rre“whoever comes”
ehe ne u rhirhi yo . . . “wherever you go”
, etc.
rhunmwunda [řũ̀ɱũ̀dá] adv.
because (of); on account of:
Ọ kpaọ rhunmwunda emwin ne iran ru ẹre“He left because of what they did to him.”
rriẹrriẹ̀ [ryɛ̀ryɛ̀] adv.
(of colour): pale:
Ọ baa rriẹrriẹ“It is pale red (i.e. pink)”^
; 2. (of temp.) mild, lukewarm:
Ọ tọn rriẹrriẹ“It is mildly hot: it is lukewarm.”
(also rẹghẹrẹghẹ).
sẹrriọ [sɛ́rìɔ́] adv.
(< sẹ1 ― eriọ) “up to that”: such that; so much so.:
Ọ dae sẹriọ ọ na gha viẹ“It was so severe that she was crying.”
(also sẹvberriọ).
sẹvberriọ [sɛ̀ʋérìɔ̌] adv.
cf. sẹrriọ.
sin3 [sĩ́] adv.
for a long time; for long:
Ọ khẹẹ ruẹ sin“He has been waiting for you for a long time.”
sira [sìɽà] adv.
in the presence of:
Ọ sira mwẹn gbẹe“He, in my presence, beat her: He beat her in front of me.”
(also sirra).
sirra [sìrà] adv.
cf. sira.
soghosogho2 [sóɣósóɣó] adv.
1. describes a rattling noise;
2. same as loghologho.
sọsọsọ [sɔ̀sɔ̀sɔ̀] adv.
1. excessively foamy (e.g. soapy water):
Evbakhuẹ na hu sọsọsọ“This soap foams very much.”
2. describes the intensity of grave anger:
Ohu mu ẹnrẹn sọsọsọ“He is extremely angry.”
sulele [súlèlé] adv.
(with mu) to carry ― usually a person across the shoulder with legs straddled around the neck.
suuun [sṹṹṹ] adv.
with a fixed gaze, or prolonged silence.
taintain [tã̀ĩtã̀ĩ] adv.
1. describes use taste of being over-salted:
Uwọnmwẹn na fian taintain“This soup tastes heavily over-salted.”
2. describes the pungent whiff of urine:
Úkpo na fian taintain ne ahiọ“This bed stinks of urine.”
teitei [téitéi] adv.
describes the fast beat of the pulses in a state of fear or anxiety:
Udu ẹre gha kpee teitei“His heart is beating very fast.”
tẹntẹnẹntẹn [tɛ̃́tɛ̃́ɛ̃́tɛ̃́] adv.
describes the state of being crammed:
Ughugha nii vuọn tẹntẹnẹntẹn ne ẹvbo“The room is crammed full of people.”
tighitighi [tìɣìtìɣì] adv.
in a tangled state:
Irri na ye tighitighi“This rope is all tangled up.”
tiii [tììì] adv.
cf. kpiii.
tobọ-ọmwan [tòbɔ́ɱã̀] adv.
by oneself; the set of reflexive pronouns are formed by replacing the second-part of the compound: “ọmwan” with the possessive form of the respective pronoun forms:
tobọ-mwẹn“by myself.”
tobọ-ruẹ“by yourself”
tobọ-ọre“by himself/herself/itself”
; etc.:
Iran tobọ-iran kie urho“They opened the door by themselves.”
tuantuantuan [tũ̀ã́tũ̀ã́tũ̀ã́] adv.
describes blinking fast:
Ọ gha bunnọ aro tuantuantuan“He is blinking fast.”
tuantuantuan [tw̃ã̀tw̃ã̀tw̃ã̀] adv.
describes a constant gaze:
Ọ gha ghe mwẹn tuantuantuan“She is gazing at me continuously.”
udemwunrri [ùdèɱũ̀rì] adv.
suddenly; without warning:
Ọ ladian udemwunrri“He appeared suddenly.”
(also udomwunrri).
ugbẹnso [ùg͡bɛ̃̀só] adv.
(< ugben ― eso)
1. sometimes; occasionally:
Ọ sẹ emwan ugbẹnso“He comes here occasionally”^
2. perhaps; maybe:
Nọọ ọnrẹn ghe, ugbẹnso ọ gha rẹn ọnrẹn“Ask him and see, perhaps he will know it.”
ugbugbe [ùg͡búg͡bè] adv.
1. horizontally:
Ọ mwanmwan erhan nii ugbugbe ye iba“He arranged the wood horizontally on the slab.”
2. crosswise.
ugbugbẹhia [ùg͡búgbɛhià] adv.
always; regularly; often:
Ọ sẹ òwa mwẹn ugbugbẹhia“He visits my house regularly.”
uhukpa [úhukpa] adv.
(also urukpa)
1. once:
Uhukpa ẹre ọ sẹ emwan“He came here only once”^
2. instantly; at once:
Ọ na wa sa eve rua uhukpa“She simply broke into tears instantly.”^
(usually with “nii” in this second sense).
ukugbakẹghẹrẹ [ùkúgbakɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ̀] adv.
1. always; all the time; at all times:
Ukugbakẹghẹrẹ ẹre ọ ya viẹ“He cries all the time.”
usunsẹn [ùsṹsɛ̃̀] adv.
(< usẹn ― usẹn) every five days.
vbekpa [ʋèkpá] adv.
concerning (something; someone; etc.); in connection with; about ―
Ọ gu ẹre guan vbekpa owa ne ọ bọ“He talked to him concerning the house he is building.”
vbenia [vénỹ̀ã́] adv.
(< vbe1 ― enia) this way; like this; thus:
Ọ khaare vbenia“He said like this: He said thus.”
(also vberian ― a form used mainly by old people).
vberriọ [ʋéryɔ́] adv.
(< vbe1 ― errio) like that:
Ọ ruẹe vberriọ“He did it like that.”
vbobọvbobọ [ʋòbɔ́ʋòbɔ́] adv.
(< vbe ― obọ ― vbe ― obọ) “at hand, at hand”: right now; instantly:
Ọ sanmwẹn ọnrẹn rhie vbobọvbobọ“He snatched it instantly.”
vbọ2 [ʋɔ́] adv.
(compressed from vbe ― vbọ) “from it”; “in it”:
ọ ma miẹ ọghẹe vbọ“He did not find his own in it.”
wanwan [w̃ã́w̃ã̀] adv.
right now (cf. wanwanna).
wanwanna [w̃ã́w̃ã́nã́] adv.
just now; right now:
Wanwanna ọ kpaọ“He left only just now.”
(also wanwan).
wooo [wòòò] adv.
1. describes a continuous dull but intense (e.g. from pepper) pain ―
Ọ balọ wooo“It hurts persistently”
2. describes the glow of red-hot logs:
Ọ baa wooo“It glows warmly.”
wowowo [wòwòwò] adv.
1. brightly-burning fire; or
2. the taste of a peppery-hot soup. (cf. wooo).
yee2 [yèé] adv.
expresses the adverbial meaning of “still”:
Ọ yee mose“She is still beautiful.”
yi3 [yí] adv.
expresses the adverbial meaning of before (in the temporal sense):
Ọ ma ka miọẹ yi“He had never seen it before.”
(The clause usually has the aux ka (previously) as well).
zaizai [zàizài] adv.
1. quickly; briskly:
Ọ ruẹe zaizai“He did it quickly.”
zẹ7 [zɛ́] adv.
indicates that the action in the main verb has been going on for a length of time ―
Ọ ghi zẹ totaa, ọ na kpaegbe“After sitting for a while, he stood up.”
zẹdẹ [zɛ̀dɛ́] adv.
1. expresses the adverbial meaning of “at all” when it occurs in a negative clause:
Ei zẹdẹ ma“It is not good at all”
2. in non-negative clauses, it may be translated as “at least”:
Ona zẹdẹ ma; nọkẹre i zẹdẹ gi a ghe“This one is at least good; the other one can’t be tolerated at all.”
zẹdia [zɛ́dyá] adv.
expresses the adverbial meaning, of “occasionally”; “sometimes”:
Ọ zẹdia rhie igho rre“He occasionally brings money.”
zẹẹ [zɛ́ɛ́] adv.
cf. zẹrẹ.
zẹgiẹgiẹ [zɛ̀gyɛ́gyɛ̀] adv.
expresses the adv. meaning of “quickly”; “hurriedly”:
Ọ zẹgiẹgiẹ bu erhae“He hastily went to his father.”