ka1 [ '][ká] {SM:act:} aux. 1. indicates that “the
subject” of the clause was first to
perform the action in the verb: mẹ ọ
ka rre
“I came first”; 2. that the
action had been performed before
in the past: Ma ka rri ẹvbo naa yi
“We had come to this town before.”

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ka2 [ '][ká] {SS::} vb. to recount all the evil
deeds committed as a witch, or practi-
tioner of other strong and evil forces;
to confess to evil doings.
%%

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ka3 [ '][ká] {SS::} vb. to count; to reckon: Ka
iran ghee deghẹ iran gbae
“Count
them to see whether they are correct.”

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ka4 [ '][ká] {SS::} vb. to dry; to be crisp: eka
ne ọ fiaẹn ma ka
“The bean-cake
that she fried was not crisp!”

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ka5 [ '][ká] {SS::} vb. to buy palm wine (or
other kinds of drinks): Ọ ka ọgọ
ayọn eha gie arowa ọre
“He bought
and brought three bottles of wine to
his master.”

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kaa1 [ `'][kàá] {SS::} vb. to make dry; to cause
to become crisp: Iran gha kaa ehẹn
vbe ovẹn
: “They are drying fish in
the sun.”

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kaa2 [ `'][kàá] {SS::} vb. to carve (e.g. a piece
of wood).

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kaa [ ' ][káa] {SS::} aux. (< ka-gha) same as
ka (adv.). Iran ọ kaa sẹ ẹvbo naa
“They were the first to come to this
town”
.

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kaan1 [ `'][kã̀ã́] {SM::} vb. 1. to touch; 2. to
pertain to; to concern: Ẹmwẹn na
kaan mwẹn
“This matter concerns
me.”

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kaan2 [ `'][kã̀ã́] {SS::} vb. (of gun, pipe, etc.),
to load; to fill with relevant substance:
Ọ kaan ukoko ne ọse ọre si “He
filled a pipe for his friend to smoke.”

ọ kaan osisi mu gọ “He loaded a
gun and placed it by.”

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kada [ ' `][kádà] {SS::} idiom. a greeting formula
expressed by males to their elders
after a meal as a mark of respect and
gratitude. It is also expressed as a
good-will greeting to an elder when
he sneezes.

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kadesẹ [ ' ` `][kádèsɛ̀] {SS::} adv. (< ke2 ― adesẹ).
to be located between; to be in the
middle of; to be at the centre of.
(also kadesẹneva).

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kadesẹneva [ ` ` ` ' `][kàdèsɛ̀névà] {SS::} adv. cf.
kadesẹ.

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kae [ `'][kàé] {SS::} vb. the cry of a squirrel.

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kaẹn [ `'][kã̀ɛ̃́] {SM::} vb. 1. to construct or build
with wood; O kaẹn ùkhuerhe mẹ
“He constructed a stool for me.”
;
2. to nail something; to attach things
together with a nail: Ọ kaẹn erhan
nii mu ẹkhu-orere mẹ
: “He nailed
that wood to the front door for me.”

%%

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kaka [ ` '][kàká] {SM::} vb. 1. to become dry; to
be dehydrated (e.g. of leaves becoming
dry and crisp).

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kakabọ [ ` ` '][kàkàbɔ́] {SS::} adv. very much; ex-
ceedingly: Ọ kakabọ tan: “He is very
tall.”

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kalọ [ ` '][kàlɔ́] {SS::} vb. to stab repeatedly; to
chop down: Izigha ya ọpia kalọ iran
vbe odẹ
: “A highway robber stabbed
them with a machete on the way.”

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kalokalo [ ' ' ' '][kálókáló] {SS::} adj.; adv. (used
with the verbs sie, bi, or ye)^^ describes
profound darkness: Ọ bi kalokalo:
“It is extremely black.”

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kan [ '][kã́] {SS::} vb. to be difficult; to be
tough: ẹghẹ naa ghi kan gbe “These
times are now very tough: These are
difficult times.”

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kan [ '`][kã́ã̀] {SS::} adj. bare; empty.: Ghẹ ya
ẹko kan la odẹ
“Don’t go on the
road with an empty stomach: don’t
go without eating first”
.

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kan [ `][kã̀] {SS::} vb. in the idiom kan ukọ:
to query; to find fault with.

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kangunkangun [ ' ' ' '][kã́gṹkã́gṹ] {SS::} adj. (used
with the vb. ye) very lean; emaciated.
Ọ ye kangunkangun “He is very
lean.”

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kankanankan [ ' '' '][kã́kã́ã́kã́] {SS::} adv. intense-
ly: 1. (with van: “to shout”): loudly;
2. (with gba: “to tie”) tightly, firmly:
Ọ ya irri gba ẹre kankanankan “He
tied it with a rope very firmly”
;
3. (with bi or siere: “dark”): pro-
foundly: Ọ bi kankanankan: “It is
profoundly dark”
.

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kanro [ ' `][kã́ɽò] {SS::} vb. to feel unenthusiastic
about (doing something) to feel
reluctant about: Eki na waa kọn
mwẹn aro ne a yo
: “I am not at
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all eager about going to this market.”

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kanmwan [ ` '][kã̀ɱã́] {SS::} vb. to be small.

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kanyan [ ' '][kã́ỹã́] {SS::} adj. unlikely; remote;
unusual, etc. (usually used with the
verb ye): Ọ ye kanyan vbe aro mwẹn
“It strikes me as being unrealizable.”

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karo [ ' `][káɽò] {SS::} vb. “to be in front of”
1. to precede; to be ahead of; 2.
to be first: Ozo ọ karo vbe edanmwẹn
ne iran ruu
“Ozo was first in
the examination that they did.”

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katakpi [ ' ' `][káták͡pì] {SS::} n. the name of a
mythical being that had no limbs;
thus the word describes anything
or anybody that looks fat and stout
and tends to roll along rather than
walk.

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katekate [ ' ' ' '][kátékáté] {SS::} adv. especially;
particularly: Iwinna rẹn keghi yẹ
arowa ọre ẹsẹse, katekate ne obọ
na wa vbe kẹ ọre
“His work was
pleasing to his master very much,
especially as he was also very fast.”

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kayọn [ ` '][kàyɔ̃́] {SS::} vb. (< ka4 ― ayọn) to
buy wine.

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ke1 [ '][ké] {SM::} vb. 1. to be located next to;
to be near: Owa mwẹn ọ ke ọghẹe
“My house is next to his.”

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ke2 [ '][ké] {SS::} vb. to be located at, rela-
tive to something else; to occupy a
space (relative to something else):
Ọ we ne imẹ ke odaro ne irẹn ke
iyeke
: “He said that I should stay
in front while he stays behind.”

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ke3 [ '][ké] {SS::} aux. (often occurs with ghi)
sequential marker: indicates that the
action in the main verb occurred
sequentially after the action in the
verb of the preceding clause:
ghi sẹ evba, ọ ke totaa
: “When he got
%%

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there; he then sat down.”

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ke4 [ '][ké] {SM:loc:} prep. 1. (occurs with verbs
of motion, such as yo, rre, dee, etc.)
indicates source or origin of motion:
from: Igue ọ ke rri iwinna: “It is
from the village that he comes to
work.”
; 2. general “source” notion
(i.e. in respect to time and place).
Ẹgogo eva ẹre ọ ke winna: “He has
been working from 2 p.m., i.e. he
has been working since 2 p.m.”

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ke5 [ `][kè] {SS::} conj. serves to link up nouns,
pronouns and noun phrases: Ọ tie
enọdiọn ke enekherhe
“He called
both the older and younger”
(cf.
kevbe).

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kee [ `'][kèé] {SM::} vb. 1. to support on a pot-
rest (to cook): Mu iyan kee ne a re
“Put the yam on the pot-rest so that
we may eat: Cook the pot of yam
(over the fire) on the pot-rest for
us to eat.”
. 2. to prop up, to hold
up in place: Ọ ya erhan kee ẹre “He
supported it with a stick.”^^

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keegbe [ `` '][kèègbé] {SS::} vb. (< kee ― egbe)
“to prop up self”: to assume falsely
a higher status than one is entitled to.

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keere [ `' `][kèérè] {SS::} vb. to be appropriate; to
be good; to be suitable: Ọ keere ye
ukpo ne iran muẹrẹn yi naa
“He
is appropriate for this post that they
have now put him.”
; Ọ keere ne a
gha ta emwanta
“It is good for
us to be telling the truth:”^^ “It is good
for us to speak the truth always”
.

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kegbe [ ` '][kègbé] {SS::} vb. (< ke1-egbe): “to
be near each other”: to be located
next to each other; to be neighbours.
Iran bọ owa kegbe “They built
houses next to each other.”

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keke [ ` '][kèké] {SS::} vb. to jostle; to push
against: Ọ keke ẹre fi ẹkhokho “He
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jostled her into a corner.”

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kevbe [ ` `][kèʋè] {SS::} conj.; adv. a conjunc-
tion linking up nouns, pronouns and
noun phrases: amwẹn ọnrẹn kevbe
ivbi ẹre
“his wife and children”;
2. also, as well: Ọ kevbe re ọduẹki
“He is also a trader”
.

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kẹeke [ ' `][kɛékè] {SS::} adv. (< ke-ẹre-ke) along
with; together with; Ozo kẹeke amwẹn
ọnrẹn ẹre ọ gba gha rrie ugbo
“Ozo
together with his wife it was that
went to the farm: It was Ozo and
his wife that went together to the
farm.”

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kẹẹ [ `'][kɛ̀ɛ́] {SM::} vb. 1. to be prompt; to
be quick: obọ kẹẹ iran vbe iwinna
na
“Hand was quick for them in
this work: they were quick in complet-
ing this work”
; 2. (as an idiom with
obọ): obọ kẹẹ nẹ: “The work has
already been completed”
. (also “Ọ
kẹẹ nẹ”
: “It is already completed”.)
Thus: ọ kẹẹ iran ya ruẹe nẹ i ke sẹ
evba.
―^^“They were already done with
doing it before I got there: They
had already completed doing it before
I got there.”

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kẹẹ [ `'][kɛ̀ɛ́] {SS::} vb. to remain; to be left
over: ígho ne ọ kẹẹre ọna khin
Here is the money that was left over
.
(also kẹrre).

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kẹkan [ ` `][kɛ̀kã̀] {MM::} 1. adj. 1. bare: owẹ kẹkan
bare foot; 2. ineffective; incon-
sequential: eve kekan ọ viẹ “He
is crying in vain; She is crying inef-
fectively.”
2. adv. only; merely:
gu ẹre gui kẹkan ne u ghẹ gbẹe
“Merely reprimand him; don’t beat
him.”

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kẹkẹ [ ` '][kɛ̀kɛ́] {SS::} vb. to rot; to become
rotten.

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kẹkẹrẹkẹ [ ` ` ' `][kɛ̀kɛ̀ɽɛ́kɛ̀] {SS::} adv. describes the
%%

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crowing of a rooster.

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kẹnnẹkẹnnẹ [ ` ` ' `][kẽ̀nẽ̀kẽ́nẽ̀] {SS::} adj. (with
gbẹnnẹ) describes a spotty design
(cf. ekẹnnẹkẹnnẹ).

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kẹrre [ ` '][kɛ̀ré] {SS::} vb. to remain; to be left
over. (cf. kẹẹ).

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(e)kẹtẹkẹtẹ [ ' ' ' '][kɛ́tɛ́kɛ́tɛ́] {SS::} n. ass; donkey.
(cf. ekẹtẹkẹtẹ).

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kẹtin [ ` ' ][kɛ̀tín] {SM::} vb. (< koo ― ẹtin) “to
gather strength”: 1. to rest, to relax;
2. to give up; to stop; 3. to die.

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kie1 [ `'][kìé] {SM::} vb. 1. to open; to unfold
(e.g. ekharha: umbrella); 2. to display:
O do ya ukpọn ne ọ da dẹ kie vbe
ẹki
“She came to display her newly-
acquired cloth in the market.”

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kie2 [ `'][kìé] {SS::} vb. to remove: Ọ kie ukpọn
hin ovẹn rre
: She removed the clothes
from the line
.

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kiekie [ ' `][kyékyè] {SS::} adv. (< ke ― iyeke)
to be last (in doing something) Rẹn
ọ kiekie rre.
―^^“He was the last to
come.”

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kigho [ ' '][kíɣó] {SS::} vb. (< ka ― ígho) “to
count money”; to reckon money.

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kii [ `'][kìí] {SM::} vb. 1. to coil; to curl up (e.g.
of reptiles),; 2. to coagulate or thicken
(e.g. of owo ― a kind of sauce; or
palm-oil): Ofigbọn na kii mu ọgọ
“This palm oil has coagulated and
stuck to the bottle.”

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kin1 [ '][kĩ́] {SM::} vb. 1. to tie tightly; to bind:
Ọ ya okun kin ẹbo “She used a
twine to tie the bag tightly.”
; 2. to
plait hair with thread.

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kin2 [ '][kĩ́] {SM::} vb. 1. to look for (fallen)
fruits at the base of a tree; 2. to
examine traps for catch.
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kinmwin [ ` '][kĩ̀ɱĩ́] {SS::} vb. to hit hard; to
strike hard.

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kinna [ ` '][kĩ̀nã́] {SS::} vb. to watch cautiously;
to spy on.

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kinnegbe [ ` ` '][kĩ̀nẽ̀gbé] {SS::} vb. (< kinna ―
egbe) “to watch body cautiously”^^:
to be on the alert for one’s safety;
to be mindful about one’s safety.

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kinnọ [ ` '][kĩ̀nɔ̃́] {SM::} vb. 1. to coil around
(iter, sense of kii 1.); 2. to bind
with rope: Iran ya irri kinnọ ẹnrẹn
mu erhan
“They bound him to a
tree with rope”
.

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kiokiokio [ ` ` `][kyòkyòkyò] {SS::} adv. describes
a peel of laughter.

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kisi [ ` `][kìsì] {SS::} adv. (with saan ― “to jump”)
smartly; nimbly: Ọ sanrẹn kisi: “He
jumped nimbly”
.

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kiyeke [ ' ` `][kíyèkè] {SS::} vb. (< ke2 ― iyeke)
“to be located at the back”, to be
behind or at the back of.

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kiza [ ` '][kìzá] {SM::} vb. 1. to be senseless; to be
stupid; 2. to be mad.

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ko1 [ '][kó] {SS::} vb. to hold a meeting; to
congregate: Iran gha ko vbene iran
khian ya suẹn ọnrẹn hẹẹ
: “They
are meeting to decide how they will
set about starting it.”
2. aux. indicates
that the action in the main verb
was performed by more than one
person: Iran hia ọ ko rri ọre “They
all ate it together; or, They all joined
in eating it.”
(also koko).

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ko2 [ '][kó] {SS::} vb. to make aload pad: ọ ghi
ko ne, ọ na mu ihe yan uhunmwun
:
“After she had made a load-pad,
she lifted the load on her head.”

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kodaro [ ` ' `][kòdárò] {SS::} vb. (< ke2 ― odaro)
to be in front. (also karo).
%%

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koikoi [ ][koikoi] {SS::} adv. describes the sound
of the pestle hitting the mortar during
the pounding of yam or other meal.

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kokerhẹn [ ` ' `][kòkéřɛ̃̀] {SS::} vb. (< koko1
erhẹn) “to assemble five” ― to make
a fire.

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kokẹtin [ ` ` '][kòkɛ̀tĩ́] {SS::} vb. (< koko1 ― ẹtin)
“to gather strength” ― to rest; to
take a break (from labour) (also kẹtin).

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koko1 [ ` '][kòkó] {MM::} 1. vb. to gather to-
gether; to assemble; to collect: Ọ na
koko iran ígho viọ
: “He collected
their money and took it.”
(Used only
in the transitive sense). 2. adv. same
as ko1: Iran koko kpaọ “They
left together”
.

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koko2 [ ` '][kòkó] {SM::} vb. 1. to care for; to
tend: Rẹn ọ koko ọmọ mẹ: She is
the one who tends the children for
me
; 2. to feed; to provide for.

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kokomẹmẹ [ ' ' ` `][kókómɛ̃̀mɛ̃̀] {SS::} n. cucumber
(cf. Engl.).

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kokooko [ ' '' '][kókóókó] {SS::} adv.; adj. (used
with the verb ye): 1. describes some-
thing that is very solid and firm; 2.
also describes something that is very
dry and crisp.

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koo [ `'][kòó] {SS::} vb. to set fractured bones.

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kotọ [ ' `][kótɔ̀] {SS::} vb. to be underneath or
below.

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koyọ [ ' `][kóyò] {SS:gr:} int. a general greeting
formula; it expresses a wide variety
of sentiments ranging from general
good will to sympathy and affection.

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kọ [ '][kɔ́] {SM::} vb. 1. to plant; to grow some-
thing; 2. (with ẹbọ ― “a god”) to
put up a shrine for: Ọ kọ olokun
ne amwẹn ọnrẹn
“He installed
an olokun shrine for his wife”
.
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kọlọ [ ` '][kɔ̀lɔ́] {SS::} vb. to pick (fruit or leaves)
from a tree; to pluck.

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kọn1 [ '][kɔ̃́] {SS::} vb. to be foolish; to be
senseless. Ọ kọn sẹẹ ẹwe “He
is foolish more than a goat: He is
more foolish than a goat.”

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kọn2 [ '][kɔ̃́] {SS::} vb. (of humans) to crawl
around on all fours; (of animals) to
graze.

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kọnkọn [ ` '][kɔ̃̀kɔ̃́] {SS::} vb. (pl. ref.) to be big
in size: Iyan ne u dẹ rre na waa kọnkọn
“These yams that you bought and
brought are very big.”

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kọnyọn [ ` `][kɔ̃̀ỹɔ̃̀] {SS::} adv. describes a kind
of look (occurs with ghee: to look)
to look at with an evil eye; to glare
at: Ọ gha ghe mwẹn kọnyọn “He
is glaring at me.”

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ku1 [ '][kú] {SS::} vb. to dip (in liquid); to
immerse; to plunge: Ọ ku ọbọ ye
uwu akhe sa amẹ
“He dipped his
hand into the pot and collected some
water.”

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ku2 [ '][kú] {SS::} vb. to lose in value; to be
devoid of worth: Ẹki ne ọ do ku
gbe ẹre
“The trading that he was
doing has become worthless: he has
gone bankrupt in his trading.”

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ku3 [ '][kú] {SS::} vb. to join with; Iran ku
kugbe rri ọre
: “They joined together
to eat it”
.

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kua [ `'][kùá] {SS::} xbl. part out; away; off: Amẹ
tue kua vbe akhe
: “water poured out
of the pot”
, Alimoi kharha kua vbe
ekpanaku
―^^“Oranges dropped off from
the plate.”
(cf. fua).

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kuakuakua [ ` ` `][kwàkwàkwà] {SS::} adv. de-
scribes a peal of laughter.

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kuamẹ [ ' `][kuámɛ̀] {SS::} vb. (< kue ― amẹ)
%%

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“to allow water” ― to become soggy;
to become unwholesomely or un-
pleasantly damp.

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kuan1 [ `'][kũ̀ã́] {SM::} vb. 1. to injure; to cause
injury to; to afflict, or be afflicted:
Emwin kuan rẹn vbe oha “Some-
thing afflicted him in the bush.”
; 2.
(usually as a second verb): to hit
against: Ọ mu obọ kuan ye egbekẹn
“He hit his arm against the wall.”

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kue1 [ `][kwè] {SM::} vb. 1. to agree to some-
thing: Ọ kue ne ọ rhie vbe ọghẹe
“He agreed for her to take from
his own”
; 2. for a woman to allow
a man to have sexual intercourse
with her.

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kue2 [ '][kwé] {SS::} adv. it occurs before a
verb to convert the clause into a
question requiring comfirmation:
kue rre?
―^^“Did he come at all?”;
kue rri evbare
“Did he eat any-
thing?”
Ẹẹn, ọ rri ekherhe “Yes,
he ate a little.”

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kue3 [ `'][kùé] {SS:loc:} prep. on, over, at: Amẹ
sa kue Ọzo ukpọn
“Water spilled
on Ozo’s cloth”
. Ekhae tue kue
otọ
“Sand poured on the floor”.
It is realised as kui in clause-final posi-
tion: Vbe ọ sa kui “Where did it
pour?”
and as kuọ before mwẹn or
mwan: Amẹ tue kuọ mwẹn “Water
poured on me.”

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kuebe [ ` '][kwèbé] {SS::} vb. (< ku2 ― ebe) “to
be devoid of leaves”, (of a tree) loose
leaves; to become bare.

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kuẹi [ ][kwɛi] {SS::} adv.; adj. describes some-
thing very small; iter.: kuẹikuẹi: very
tiny.

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kuẹki [ ' `][kwɛ́kì] {SS::} vb. (< ku2 ― ẹki) “to
be devoid of value in trade”; 1. to
depreciate in value; 2. to become
bankrupt.
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kuẹ́n [ '][kwɛ̃́] {SS::} vb. (occurs with dẹ: to
buy): without paying: on credit:
Ọ dẹ ẹwu kuẹn vbe obọ mwẹn: “She
bought a dress on credit from me.”

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kùẹn [ `'][kwɛ̃̀ɛ̃́] {SS::} vb. to curl (also sikuẹn).

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kuẹnkhun [ ' `][kwɛ̃́xũ̀] {SS::} vb. (< kun-ekhun)
“to form a cripple”: to become im-
mobile; to be rendered motionless.

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kuẹtin [ ` '][kwɛ̀tĩ́] {SS::} n. cf. ketin.

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kugbakẹghẹrẹ [ ' ` ' ][kúgbakɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ] {SS::} adv. cf.
ukugbakẹghẹrẹ.

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kugbe1 [ ` '][kùgbé] {SS::} vb. to join together;
to unite (also kukugbe).

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kugbe2 [ ` '][kùgbé] {SS::} adv. together.

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kughudu [ ' ' '][kúɣúdú] {SS::} adj. describes some-
thing small and deep, like a little bowl.

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kukugbe [ ` ` '][kùkùgbé] {SS::} vb. cf. kugbe1.

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kukuku [ ` ` `][kùkùkù] {SS::} adv. describes the
look of sprouting new leaves: Ebe
erhan na wa họọn kukuku
: “The
leaves of this tree have spouted in
swarms.”

%%

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kukhunmwun [ ' ` `][kúxũ̀ɱù] {SS::} vb. (< ke2
― ukhunmwun) to be above: to
be on top of; to be higher than.

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kulo [ ` '][kùló] {SS::} vb. to be damaged; to be
spoiled: Ikẹkẹ na kulo nẹ; ẹi ghi gie
a hiin.
―^^“This bicycle is now bad;
it can no longer be ridden.”

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kulu [ ` '][kùlú] {SS::} vb. iter. of ku: Iran kulu
obọ ye uwawa zọlọ emiọwo ne i rrọọ
viọ
“They dipped their hands into
the pot and picked out all the meat
in it.”

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kun [ '][kṹ] {SS::} vb. to construct something;
to fashion something: Ọ kun imọto
nẹẹ ya gha kuu
“He constructed
a (toy) car for him to play with.”

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kuun [ `'][kũ̀ṹ] {SS::} vb. to package something;
to pack together: Ọ kuun emwin ẹnrẹn
hia kpaọ
“He packed all his things
away.”

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kuọ [ `'][kùɔ́] {SS::} vb. to faint; to become un-
conscious.

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kurọọ [ ` ``][kùɽɔ̀ɔ̀] {SS::} adv.; adj. (used with
the verb ye) dull, lifeless: Edẹ nẹrẹ
ye kurọọ
“The day today is very
dull.”

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