na1 [ '][nã́] {SM::} vb. 1. to narrate: Ozo na
evbene emwin nii hia ya sunu hẹẹ

“Ozo narrated how all those things
came about”
; 2. to say, to utter
(e.g. a prayer). (cf. naa).

inline

na2 [ '][nã́] {SS::} adv. sequential marker: then;
and then: Ọ ghi tuẹ iran nẹ, ọ na tota:
― “After he had greeted them, he
then sat down.”

inline

na3 [ '][nã́] {SS::} prep. A variant of the prep.
ne which introduces the recipient
or beneficiary in a sentence with
verbs such as rhie, mu, viọ, etc. na
is used when the complement NP
does not immediately follow it:
rhie ígho ne Ozo
: “He gave money
to Ozo”
; Ozo ẹre ọ rhie ígho na
“It is Ozo that he gave the money
to.”

%%

inline

na [ '][nã́] {SM::} adv. 1. occurs in relative clauses
in which the relation is either temporal
or locational: Ẹghẹ ne ọ na rre, ma
ma miẹ ọnrẹn
“At the time when
he came, we did not see him.”
2.
khama ima che ne ọ na miẹ ọnrẹn

“She told us the place where she
saw him.”

inline


na [ `][nà] {SM::} dem. pron. 1. this: Owa na
ẹre ọ ye
“This house is where he
lives.”
; 2. general proximate: nearest,
next before or after (in terms of
place, order, time, thought sequence,
causation, etc.): Emwin ne u ru na
i yẹ mwẹn
“What you are doing
now does not please me.”
Ne ọ na
rre na, vbe ọ ghi ra dia?
―^^“As he has
now come, where will he stay?”
.

inline


naa [ `'][nã̀ã́] {SS::} vb. to spread uncompliment-
ary information about; to broadcast
$Page 100$

inline


maliciously: Ọ gha naa mwẹn khian
ighẹ i ma rhie okhuo
: “He is spreading
unpleasant news about me concerning
my not marrying.”

inline

naa-ẹko [ ` '][nã̀ɛkó] {SS::} idiom. to make preg-
nant; to put in the family way: Ozo
o naa Atiti ẹko
: “It was Ozo that
put Atiti in the family way.”

inline

namwunsin [ ' ' `][náɱṹsĩ̀] {SS::} adv. ― cf.
enamwunsin.

inline

nana [ ` '][nã̀nã́] {SM::} vb. 1. to tread step by
step; to climb gradually; Fẹkọ nanaẹ
ne u ghẹ de
“Climb it slowly and
gradually so that you may not fall.”

2. to narrate in detail; to spell out
fully.

inline

1 [ `][nè] {SS::} rel. pron. it introduces a rela-
tive clause; the vowel is usually deleted
before the vowel of the pron. subj.
of the rel. clause, or the initial vowel
of the following noun: Ọ ma mwẹn
eke nẹ ọ diaa
: “He showed me where
he stays.”

inline

2 [ `][nè] {SS::} prep. see na3.

inline

3 [ `][nè] {SS::} adv. so that; that: Lare ne
i khama ruẹn
“Come so that I
may tell you (something).”

inline

1 [ '][né] {SS::} complz. serves as a com-
plementizer for (embedded) subjunc-
tive clauses: I ho ne u gha die owa
mwẹn
“I want you to come to
my house.”
Ọ we ne ima kpaọ
“He said that we should leave.”

inline

(e)né2 [ '][(e)né] {SS::} dem.; art. serves to
specify a definite reference; the vowel
is usually deleted before a following
vowel in normal speech: ene ọmwan
vboo?
―^^“Where is the person?” I
dẹ ene ukpọn ne u khare
“I bought
the cloth that you indicated.”
In
this sense, ne, though translated as
%%

inline

“the”, is different from the English
def. article in that when it occurs
with a noun, it does not merely
indicate that the noun is not a first
mention, but more strongly indicates
that it is a specific reference: note
the difference between these two
sentences: I miẹ ọnrẹn vbe ẹki. ―^^“I saw
it at the market
. I miẹ ọnrẹn vbe ene
eki.
―^^“I saw it at that particular
market
; 2. also serves to make
attributive adjectives out of certain
stative vbs: kherhe “to be small”;
nekherhe “small”; wẹnrẹn “to
be thin”
; newẹnrẹn “thin.”

inline


3 [ '][né] {SS::} epithetic part. 1; introduces
attributive or titular qualifiers of
a noun: ọvbi-ẹre nokpia: “his male
son”
; Arhuanran n’olẹtin: “Arhuanran
the strong one”
, etc.; 2. when it
introduces a noun which serves as
qualifier of itself, the particle usually
serves to amplify the meaning of the
noun, or to indicate the authenticity
of the value of the noun: okpia ne
okpia nọ
“He is a real man”: Ẹzọ
ne ẹzọ ẹre ọ gui rhu ruẹ naa
“It
is a very solid case that he has argued
against you.”

inline


4 [ '][né] {SS::} temp. part. occurs before
temporal nouns to express the sense
of “that has passed”: nukpo “the
year that has passed”^^ ― “a year ago”;
“last year”
; n’owiẹ-ẹrẹ “the morning
that has passed”: this morning
.

inline


negẹdẹẹgbẹ [ ' ` ` `][négɛ̀dɛ̀g͡bɛ̀] {SS::} adj. very big,
huge.

inline


nekherhe [ ' ][néxeře] {SS::} adj. small; little:
Owa nekherhe “a little house.”

inline


nekhui [ ' `][néxwĩ̀] {SS::} adj. black: Ọmwan
nekhui
“a black person.”

inline


nene [ ' ][néne] {SS::} dem. art. emphatic form
of né2: n’okpia ọna khin “This
$Page 101$

inline


is the man (we were talking about).”
nene okpia ọna khin ― “This is the
very man (we were talking about).”

inline

nerhunmwun [ ' ` `][néřũ̀ɱũ̀] {SS::} vb. to pray
(also lerhunmwun).

inline

nẹ1 [ '][nɛ́] {SS::} vb. to defecate; to pass out
faeces.

inline

nẹ2 [ '][nɛ́] {SS::} adv. already: Ọ wu nẹ ra? ―^^
“Has he died already?”

inline

nẹ3 [ '][nɛ́] {SS::} n. the form of the 3rd
per. sgl. pronoun “it” which occurs
with the interrogative word vboo:
nẹ vboo nia “Where is it now?”

inline

nẹdẹ [ ' `][nɛ́dɛ̀] {SS::} adj.; adv. in the days past;
in the old days.

inline

nẹdẹso [ ' `][nɛ́dɛsò] {SS::} adj.; adv. some time
ago.

inline

nẹghẹdia [ ' ' ][nɛ́ɣɛ́dya] {SS::} adj.; adv. two
days ago (third day back from today).

inline

nẹkpẹnnẹkpẹn [ ` ` ` `][nɛ̃̀kpɛ̃̀nɛ̃̀kpɛ̃̀] {SS::} adv.
gradually, cautiously: Si irri nii
nẹkpẹnnẹkpẹn ne ẹ ghe fian
“Pull
that rope cautiously so that it won’t
cut.”

inline

nẹvusẹn [ ' ' `][nɛ́vúsɛ̃̀] {SS::} adj.; adv. four days
ago (fifth day back from today).

inline

ni1 [ '][nĩ́] {SM::} vb. 1. to subscribe (money)
toward a group fund; to pay a mem-
bership levy: i ni ígho-emitin mwẹn
nẹ
“I have paid my membership
levy for my society”
; 2. to impose
a membership levy: Iran ni ígho-
ukpọn emitin gun mwẹn
“They
sent to me about the membership
levy I was required to pay, toward
the purchase of the society uniform.”

inline

ni2 [ '][nĩ́] {SM::} vb. 1. (of a boat or canoe)
to overturn; to sink: Ọkọ iran ni
%%

inline

ye ẹzẹ “Their boat overturned
in the river.”

inline


ni3 [ '][nĩ́] {SS::} vb. (with orhiọn) to fail; to
cease: Orhiọn ni mwẹn “Soul has
failed me”: “I feel faint; I am tired.”

inline


nia [ `'][nĩ̀ã́] {SM:time:} adv. 1. now; at this time:
ọ sẹtin gha khian nẹ nia He is now
able to walk already
; 2. at last, finally:
Eban i ghi doo mioẹn nia “It is
now that I have finally found it.”^^

(nia never occurs in utterance initial
position).

inline


niania [ ` '][nyã̀nyã́] {SS::} vb. (usually with an
abstract obj.) to drag indefinitely;
to extend beyond proportions:
guẹ vbe a niania ẹmwẹn hẹẹ gbe

“He is too fond of dragging matters
indefinitely.”
(also tiantian).

inline


niẹ [ `'][nĩ̀ɛ̃́] {SM::} vb. 1. to stretch; to extend,
to point: Ọ niẹ owẹ gbe odẹ “He
extended his legs across the way.”

inline


nii [ ''][nĩ́ĩ́] {SM::} dem. adj. 1. “that”: ebe nii
“that book”; 2. generally specifies
things remote or far away, in place
or time: Ne u na rre nii “that (time)
when you came”
; ehe ne i ma te ye
nii
“that place where we used
to be”
, etc.

inline


niwẹwẹ [ ' ` `][nĩ́wɛ̀wɛ̀] {SS::} adj. (with amẹ)
drizzling: amẹ niwẹwẹ ne ọ miẹ ẹdẹ
“the drizzling rain that took all day.”

inline


nodẹ [ ' `][nṍdɛ̀] {SS:time:} adv.; adj. yesterday.

inline


nogie- [ ' `][nṍgiè] {SS:nu:} adj.; num. prefix used
with numerals to derive their ordinal
forms: nogieva second; nogieha
third
; nogiene fourth. etc.

inline


nokaro [ ' ` `][nṍkàɽò] {SS:nu:} adv.; adj. the first.

inline


nọ [ '][nɔ̃́] {SS::} cop. to be; a form of the
$Page 102$

inline


copula which does not take a comple-
ment. Ọse mwẹn nọ “My friend
it is”: “He is my friend”
. Rẹn nọ
“Him it is”: “It is him.”
(also cf.
khin.)

inline

nọfua [ ' `][nɔ̃́fwà] {SS::} adj. white; whitish (pl.
nefua).

inline

(e)nọkhaevbisẹ [ ` ` ][nɔ̃̀xaeʋìsɛ] {SS:pe:} adj.; n.
“he who says what comes to be”:
the one in authority; the presiding
authority. (pl. nikhaevbisẹ).

inline

nọkhua [ ' `][nɔ̃́xwà] {SM::} adj. 1. big, large ―
erhan nọkhua “big tree”; 2. (with
kin terms): grand: erha-nọkhua
(pl. nekhua) “grandfather”
.
%%

inline

nọkpa [ ' `][nɔ̃́kpà] {SS::} adj. the other (one):
Ebe nọkpa ọre ọghomwẹn “It
is the other book that is my own
(pl. nekpa).”

inline


nọkpọlọ [ ` ` '][nɔ̃̀kpɔ̀lɔ́] {SS::} adj. large, expan-
sive: Ẹvbo nọkpọlọ ọ yẹ mwẹn
“It is large towns that I like.”
(pl.
nikpọlọ).

inline


nọmaa [ ` `'][nɔ̃̀mã̀ã́] {SS::} adj. good: evbare
nọmaa
“good food”.

inline


nọnọ [ ` '][nɔ̃̀nɔ̃́] {SS::} vb. to drip; to pour a
drop at a time, or very slowly e.g.
ofigbọn nọnọ ye aga “Some palm
oil dripped on the chair.”

inline


nukpo [ ' `][nṹkpò] {SS::} adv.; adj. last year:
rre nukpo
“He came last year.”

inline