a1 [à] pron.
an impersonal pronoun, usually rendered by the impersonal “we” in English:
a rri ọre ― “we eat it” i.e. “it is edible.”
a2 [á] pron.
a bound form of the 2nd per. sgl. pronoun, ruẹ [rùɛ́]:
ọ guaa < ọ gua ruẹ ― “it accommodated you”
owaa ọna khin < owa ruẹ ọna khin ― “Your house this is” i.e. “This is your house.”
dè3 [dè] inter. pron.
what? which? as in:
dẹghe? (< de ẹghẹ) ― “what time? when?”
dehe? (< de ehe) ― “what place?: where?”
devbene? (< de evbene) ― “what manner?: how?”
demwin? (< de emwin) ― “what thing?: what?”
dọghe? (< de ọghe) ― “whose?”
dọnwan? (< de ọmwan) ― “who”
ena [ènã̀] dem. pr.
these, these ones:
Ena ẹre ọ khaa ― “These are the ones he means”
ẹ [ɛ̀] pro.
3rd per. sgl. pronoun in the negative:
Ọ maa ra ẹ i maa? “He is good or he is not good? i.e. is he good or not?”
ẹre2 [ɛ̀ɽé/ɛ́ɽè] pron.
one of the forms of the 3rd person singular pronoun when it occurs as object or as possessive:
Ọzo gbe ẹre ― “Ozo beat him”
ebe ẹre nọ ― It is his book
. Other forms of this pronoun are: ẹnrẹn; ọre; ọnrẹn;
ghá2 [ɣá] inter. pron.
Interrogative personal pronoun:
gha oni khin? “Who is that?”
Gha ọ miọrẹn? ― “Who saw it?”
i [ì] pron.
Non-emphatic first pers. sgl. subj. pronoun: I.:
I rrie owa ― I am going home
ilu [ílú] inter. pron.
ilu iran ọ rre? How many of them came? (also inu)
ima [ìmà] pron.
emphatic 1st per. pl. pronoun; we, us, our, etc. it may be intensified by the suffix -mwan imamwan. As subject of a sentence, the initial vowel is usually dropped:
Ma ọ rre Edo: We are the ones in Benin
imẹ [ìmɛ̀] pron.
emphatic 1st per. sgl. pronoun: I, me, my etc.; it may be intensified by the suffix -mwẹn: imẹmwẹn ― me, myself; as subject of a sentence, the initial vowel is usually dropped:
mẹmwẹn ọ ruẹe ― I myself did it
iran [íɽ̃ã̀] pron.
the 3rd per. pl. pronoun: they, them, their etc.
irẹn [ìɽ̃ɛ̃̀] pron.
the emphatic 3rd per. sgl. pronoun. Variant forms of this pronoun include irọnrẹn, irọẹn, rẹn, rọẹn. As subject, or first item, in a sentence, the initial vowel is usually dropped:
Rẹn ẹre iran khaa ― “He is the one they mean”
ma [mã̀] pron.
a form of the 1st per. pl. pronoun; it usually serves as subj. of the clause or sentence in which it occurs:
Ma sẹ owa nẹ ― “We have reached home already”
mẹ3 [mɛ̃́] pron.
1. a form of the emphatic 1st per. sgl. pronominal which serves as subject of the clause or sentence in which it occurs:
Mẹ yo nẹ ― “I have gone already”
2. with a high tone, it represents the indirect object form of the 1st pers. sgl. pron.
Ọ rhie mẹ ― “He gave me”
(The high tone on the prououn is realized as slightly lower than the preceding high tone because it is at an utterance final position).
mwan [ɱã́] pron.
a form of the 1st pers. pl. pron. used mainly in religious contexts: our; us:
orukhọ mwan ― “our sins”
miẹn mwan fan ― “save us”
mwẹn [ɱɛ̃́] pron.
a form of the 1st pers. sg. pron: me; my:
ọ gbe mwẹn ― “He beat me.”
Ọse mwẹn ― “my friend.”
na [nà] dem. pron.
Owa na ẹre ọ ye ― “This house is where he lives.”
2. general proximate: nearest, next before or after (in terms of place, order, time, thought sequence, causation, etc.):
Emwin ne u ru na i yẹ mwẹn ― “What you are doing now does not please me.”
Ne ọ na rre na, vbe ọ ghi ra dia? “As he has now come, where will he stay?”
nè1 [nè] rel. pron.
it introduces a relative clause; the vowel is usually deleted before the vowel of the pron. subj. of the rel. clause, or the initial vowel of the following noun:
Ọ ma mwẹn eke nẹ ọ diaa: “He showed me where he stays.”
ọ [ɔ̀] pron.
3rd per. sgl. pronoun: he, she, it; usually functions as subject of the clause or sentence in which it occurs:
Ọ gbe ẹwe ― “He killed a goat.”
ọna [ɔ̀nã̀] dem. pronoun.
this one (pl. ena):
Ọna ọ ma sẹ ehia: “This one is the best of them all.”
ọnii [ɔ́nĩ̀ĩ́] dem. den.pron.
that one (pl. enii):
Ọnii ọ yẹ mwẹn ― “That one is what I like.”
ọre2 [ɔ́ɽè] pron.
3rd pers. sg. possessive pron: his, her, its:
owẹ ọre ― “his/ her/its feet.”
(Variant forms: ẹre, ọnrẹn, ẹnrẹn, re, rẹn).
ruan2 [ɽũ̀ã́] pron.
a form of the 2nd person pl. pron. (poss. & obj.) which is used mainly by the elderly:
Ẹmwẹn ruan ọ ya mwẹn sẹ usẹ ― “It is on your (pl.) account that I am suffering”
: “^I am suffering on your account”. Now most people would say: “Emwẹn uwa
ọ ya mwẹn sẹ usẹ.” (other forms of the pronoun are rua, -uan, & -ua).
ruẹ2 [ɽùɛ́] pron.
a form of the 2nd pers. sgl. pron. (possessive):
ebe ruẹ ― “Your book”
; (other forms of the pron. are ruẹn, -uẹ, -uẹn, -ẹn, -ẹ).
u [ù] pron.
a form of the 2nd pers. sing. that occurs as subject of a clause:
U rre nodẹ ― “You came yesterday.”
uwa1 [ùwà] pron.
a form of the 2nd pers. pl. pronoun.: you pl.
uwẹ [ùwɛ̀] pron.
a form of the 2nd pers. sgl. pronoun: you.
vbe2 [ʋè] inter.; pron.
vbe ọ mu fua? ― “What he lost?”: What did he lose?
vbọzẹ (< vbe ― ọ― ze?) “What-it-be responsible for?” What is it that is responsible for . . . ?; why? Vbọọkhin? (< vbe ― ọ ― khin?) “What-it-be?”: What is it (that) . . . ; why?:
Vbọọkhin ne u na viẹ? “Why are you crying?”
wa [wà] pron.
a form of the 2nd pers. pl. pron.: you.:
Wa ghẹ gui ― “You (pl.) don’t be angry: Don’t be angry.”