ba3 [bá] aux.
to pretend to be doing something; to fake:
Te ọ ba viẹ“He is pretending to cry”
(also ma).
ghà [ɣà] aux.
(occurs in conditional sentences):
1. if, when:
ọ gha rre, u ghi rhie ne ẹnrẹn “If/when he comes, give it to him.”
2. would have, (when it occurs in the consequent clause of a hypothetical sentence):
Akpawẹ i mwẹn ígho, i gha dẹ ọre. If I had money, I would have bought it
. In this context, the subject pronoun always has a high tone.
ghẹ [ɣɛ́] aux.
1. expresses negation in imperative and subjunctive sentences:
Ghẹ rhie nẹẹ“Do not give him.”
2. (with a mid tone) it expresses the negative of ghà in the consequent clause of a hypothetical sentence: (i.e. would not have)
I kpa rẹn, i ghẹ dẹHad I known, I would not have bought (it)
ghi1 [ɣí] aux.
1. occurs as a temporal particle in clauses:
Ọ ghi rre, ọ na rri evbare“When he arrived, he ate.”
2. as an aux in negative clauses, meaning “any more”:
E i ghi yo ugbo ẹghẹ hia“He does not go to the farm all the time any more.”
It has a variant ghu after the 2nd per. pron.
3. as an aux in an affirmative sentence to express resultative meaning “to become”:
Ọ ghi dọn: “He has become lean”
ghi2 [ɣí] aux.
occurs in the consequent clause of a conditional sentence as the conditional marker
U gha miẹ ẹnrẹn, u ghi tuẹ ọre“If you see him, you should greet him.”
(also occurs as ghu after 2nd pers. sing. pron.)^
ghu [ɣú/ɣù] aux.
af ghi 1 & 2.
he3 [hé] aux.
indicates that an action was “finally” performed after much reluctance or difficulty:
ọ he kpaọ“He finally left (thank goodness!)”
ka1 [ká] aux.
1. indicates that “the subject” of the clause was first to perform the action in the verb:
mẹ ọ ka rre“I came first”
2. that the action had been performed before in the past:
Ma ka rri ẹvbo naa yi“We had come to this town before.”
kaa [káa] aux.
(< ka-gha) same as ka (adv.).
Iran ọ kaa sẹ ẹvbo naa“They were the first to come to this town”
ke3 [ké] aux.
(often occurs with ghi) sequential marker: indicates that the action in the main verb occurred sequentially after the action in the verb of the preceding clause:
Ọ ghi sẹ evba, ọ ke totaa: “When he got there; he then sat down.”
khian3 [xyã́] aux.
inceptive marker; indicates that the action in the verb is about to begin, or that it will take place: it may be translated by: about to; going to; or want to:
Ọ khian gbẹe: “^He is going to beat him”
I khian kpaọI am about to leave; I want to leave; etc
kpa3 [k͡pá] aux.
1. occurs as the conditional element in the hypothetical clause of a conditional sentence:
kpa rẹn, i ghẹ rre: “Had I known, I would not have come”
2. occurs in the idiom: Ọ kpa maa . . . meaning “It is just as well . . .”^:
Ọ kpa maa ighẹ ọ ma yo, ẹ ghẹ họn ẹmwẹn ne iran ta “It is just as well that he did not go, he would not have heard what they were saying”
ma4 [mã́] aux.
to pretend to be doing something:
Ọ ma viẹ“He is only pretending to be crying.”
ma6 [mã́] aux.
1. indicates that the action in the main verb had been performed sometime before:
Ọ ma nọ ọnrẹn nẹ“He had asked him already before.”
te1 [té] aux
1. almost:
Ọ te de“He almost fell.”
2. before:
Ozo te kpaọ, ọ keghi tuẹ iran“Before Ozo left, he greeted them.”
te2 [té] aux.
1. (with psychic st. vbs, such as hoo ― “like”, “want”; roo ― “think”; etc.): implies that the state expressed in the verb was not attained:
Ọ te hoo ne i wu“He had wanted me to die.”
2. (with over vbs.): implies that the state or action described in the vb., though attained or accomplished, is still lacking in truth-value or effect, in some respect, and so the clause is usually followed by another clause introduced by sokpan (but):
Ọ te sẹe, sokpan ọ ma gua mwẹn egbe“He sewed it alright, but it did not fit me.”
te3 [té] aux
It occurs optionally at sentence initial position to indicate affirmation with a general meaning that may be glossed as: “It is the case that . . . ”
Te ọ yẹ mwẹn“It is the case that I like it”
(i.e. I do like it). When it occurs in a sentence ending with the question particle “ra”, te is usually the focus of the question:
Te ọ yẹ ruẹ ra? “Is it the case that you like it? (i.e. Do you like it?)”^
If the answer to such a question is affirmative, then “te” introduces the sentence:
Eẹn, te ọ yẹ mwẹn“Yes,I like it.”
If for any reason it is deleted, the high tone on its vowel replaces the low tone of the pronoun:
Ọ yẹ mwẹn“It is the case that I like it.”