deghẹ2 [déɣɛ̀] inter part.
an interrogative marker requiring a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answer: Q: Deghẹ u miọẹn? Ans. Ẹo, i ma miọẹn; or Ẹẹn, i miọen ― Q: “Did you see it? Ans No, I did not see it; or Yes, I saw it.”
ghá1 [ɣá] tense/asp. part.
1. present progressive marker: 2. future tense marker: Ọ gha vie: 1. “He is crying.”; 2. “He will cry”.
gháa [ɣáa] tense/asp. part.
1. (with high-mid tone) past progressive:
ọ ghaa viẹ vbe u kpaa “He was crying when you left.”
2. (with high-high tone) future progressive:
Ọ gháá viẹ vbe u a kpaa nẹ“She will be crying after you will have left.”
3 [né] epithetic part.
1. introduces attributive or titular qualifiers of a noun:
ọvbi-ẹre nokpia: “his male son”
Arhuanran n’olẹtin: “Arhuanran the strong one”
, etc.;
2. when it introduces a noun which serves as qualifier of itself, the particle usually serves to amplify the meaning of the noun, or to indicate the authenticity of the value of the noun:
okpia ne okpia nọ“He is a real man”
Ẹzọ ne ẹzọ ẹre ọ gui rhu ruẹ naa“It is a very solid case that he has argued against you.”
4 [né] temp. part.
occurs before temporal nouns to express the sense of “that has passed”:
nukpo“the year that has passed”^ ― “a year ago”; “last year”
n’owiẹ-ẹrẹ“the morning that has passed”: this morning
ra1 [ɽà] inter. part.
question particle requiring a “Yes” or “No” answer:
Ọ rre ra?Did he come?
vboo2 [ʋòó] inter.; part.
(occurs at the end of the sentence): location question particle: (to be) where?
Owa ruẹ vboo?“Where is your house?”