sa1 [sá] vb.
1. (of water) to draw, to collect:
Ọ sa amẹ vuọn akhe hia“She drew water into all the pots”
2. (of liquids, generally): to scoop; to collect with a hollow container:
Sa uwọnmwẹn ye ọkpan mẹ“Scoop some soup into the plate for me.”
sa2 [sá] vb.
to cast (in brass or bronze):
Iran sa ẹre ye ama“They cast a figure of him.”
sa3 [sá] vb.
1. to sting; to bite:
Ẹyẹn sa mwẹn vbe oha“A snake bit me in the bush.”
2. to shoot (with a weapon):
Ọ ya uhanbọ sa ẹre“He shot it with a bow.”
saa1 [sàá] vb.
to burst; to break open explosively:
Ọmọ-okpagha saare“The cassia-pod has burst open.”
(cf. salọ).
saa2 [sàá] vb.
1. to weave or braid hair (by hand);
2. to weave generally:
Ozo gua saa ẹbo“Ozo knows how to weave a sack.”
saa [sáà] int.
“shoo!” an exclamation used to chase out domestic animals.
saan [sã̀ã́] vb.
to jump:
Ọ saan ogba gberra“He jumped over the fence.”
saba [sàbá] modal
1. to be able; to be capable:
Ọ saba winna“He is able to work: He works well.”
2. to be permitted; may:
U saba kpaọ“You may go”
3. to be possible; can, could, might, etc.:
Ọ saba lẹẹ deghẹ u ma gbaro sotọ vbe egbe ẹre“He could escape if you do not watch him diligently.”
sahẹ [sáhɛ̀] vb.
to faint; to lose consciousness.
salọ1 [sàlɔ́] vb.
1. Plural or reiterative sense of sa (“to sting”):
Ehihi salọ mwẹn egbe hia“Ants have bitten me all over my body”
2. Pluralor reiterative sense of saa1:
Ọmọ okpagha hia salọ vuọn otọ“Cassia pods have burst and are all over the ground.”
salọ2 [sàlɔ́] vb.
to comb (hair):
Ọ ma salọ eto ẹre“He did not comb his hair.”
sakaan [sàkã̀ã́] vb.
to be spoiled; to be over-indulged (usually of children). Transitive sense = sakan:
Ọ sakan ọmọ na“she spoiled this child”
sakọn1 [sákɔ̃̀] vb.
(< sẹ ― akọn) “to chip teeth”: to have one’s teeth filed (for cosmetic effect).
sakọn2 [sákɔ̃̀] vb.
(< se1 ― akon) “to sew teeth”: to grip (something) with the teeth:
Ọ sakọn mu ẹnrẹn“She gripped it with her teeth.”
sakparẹghodin [sákpáɽɛɣòdĩ̀] n.
cf. esakpareghodin.
samẹ [sámɛ̀] vb.
(< sa1 ― amẹ) (in the Christian sense) to baptize; to be baptized:
I samẹ vbẹ ẹghẹ ne i na ye kherhe“I was baptized when I was very small.”
sanmwẹn [sã̀ɱɛ̃́] vb.
(of specks or small drops of liquid).
1. to splash on:
amẹ sanmwẹn kuọ nwen“Water splashed on me.”
2. to snatch:
Ọ sanmwẹn ọnrẹn vbe obọ mwẹn“He matched it from me.”
3. to shake out (to release excess water, dust, dirt, etc.).
sanmwẹn ọnrẹn u ke taẹn“Shake it out before you spread it.”
sata [sátà] n.
1. to charter (a lorry):
Ọ sata imọto gha dee“He chartered a lorry to come.”
2. to buy wholesale:
Ọ sata alimoi nii vbe obọ enọgude“She bought those oranges wholesale from the seller.”
se1 [sé] vb.
to sew ―
Ọ se ukpọn ẹse“She sews (cloth) well.”
se2 [sé] vb.
to break open a shell; to husk:
Ivin ma se vbe odọ sin“We have since been husking palm kernels over there.”
; 2. (with ivin) to have multiple births:
Ọ se ivin eva“She gave birth to twins.”
sekhae [séxàe] vb.
to march.
sẹ1 [sɛ́] vb.
1. to reach; to be up to: (applicable to time and space):
O sẹ uki eha ne ọ ghi kpaọ“It has reached three months since he left.”
Ọ sẹ ibiriki isẹn ne ima he la“It is up to five miles that we have walked.”
2. to be adequate; to be enough:
Igho na i sẹ mwẹn ya dẹ ọre“This money (amount) will not be enough for me to buy it.”
3. to arrive (at a location).
De ẹdẹ ne ọ sẹ emwan yi? “When did he arrive here?”
4. to visit; to come or go:
Ọ ma he sẹ owa mwẹn ke ne ọ ya sẹ evbo na“He has not visited my house since he arrived in this town.”
5. to come to be; to come true:
Emwẹn ọbo sẹe“The word of the oracler has come to be.”
sẹ2 [sɛ́] vb.
to chip:
Ehọ akhe na sẹ fua“The tip of this pot has chipped off.”
sẹ3 [sɛ́] vb.
(of osẹ ― witness) to testify as witness (usually combines with its generic object, osẹ as a single word ― sosẹ ― when they are not discontinous)^
Ọ sosẹ gbe iran“She testilied against them.”
Ose ohoghoe ẹre ọ sẹe gbe iranIt was false testimony that she gave against them
sẹẹ [sɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
1. to surpass; to be superior to:
Etin ẹnrẹn sẹẹ ọghuẹ“His strength is superior to yours.”
2. (in a comparative sense): to be more or geater than:
Ọna kpolọ sẹẹ ọnii“This is bigger than that.”
sẹkẹsẹkẹ [sɛ̀kɛ̀sɛ̀kɛ̀] adj.
describes an untidy and irritating object or sight:
Ukpọn ren ye sẹkẹsẹkẹ“Her cloth is filthy.”
(also sẹlẹkẹ).
sẹlẹkẹ [sɛ̀lɛ̀kɛ̀] adj.
1. describes a dirty or filthy obj. or sight.;
2. (of ovbiogue ― poor person) the level of complete destitution.
sẹrae [sɛ́ɽàé] vb.
(< sẹ ― rae) to leave behind; to leave alone.:
Ọ sẹ ovbi ẹre rae ye owa“She left her child behind at home.”
sẹrhiẹnrhiẹn [sɛ̀řyɛ̃̀řẏɛ̃́] vb.
to revoke a curse; to absolve (a person) from the effect of a curse:
I sẹrhiẹnrhiẹn ruẹn ihẹn ne i tie nuẹn“I absolve you from the effect of the curse I had pronounced on you.”
sẹrriọ [sɛ́rìɔ́] adv.
(< sẹ1 ― eriọ) “up to that”: such that; so much so.:
Ọ dae sẹriọ ọ na gha viẹ“It was so severe that she was crying.”
(also sẹvberriọ).
sẹsẹsẹ [sɛ̀sɛ̀sɛ̀] adv.; adj.
describes something that is either very clean or very white:
Ewu ẹre fua sẹsẹsẹ: “Her dress was sparkling white.”
sẹtin [sɛ̀tín] vb.
(< sẹ1 ― ẹtin) “to be able” to be strong enough (to do something); to be capable of (doing something). (also saba, mẹtin).
sẹvberriọ [sɛ̀ʋérìɔ̌] adv.
cf. sẹrriọ.
si1 [sí] vb.
1. to cause; to bring about:
Ọ si amẹ gbe iran“He caused rain on them.”
Rẹn ẹre ọ si ẹre ighẹ ọ wu“He was the one that caused it that she died: He brought about her death.”
si2 [si] vb.
1. to pull (something); to drag (something):
Ọ si ukpọn gue egbe“He pulled the cloth to cover his body: He pulled the cloth over his body.”
2. to shift (something):
Si ẹre hin odẹ rre“Shift it out of the way.”
3. to move; to change location:
Iran si kpaọ gha rrie ẹvbo ọvbehe“They moved away to go to another town”
(cf. si-kẹẹ; si-mama; si-koko etc.).;
4. (of baby): to crawl:
Ẹi he si“She is not crawling yet.”
si3 [sí] vb.
to reduce; to grow less (in size, intensity, or capacity):
Amẹ ne ọ te ro vuọn ukpo si nẹ“The water that had flooded the road has reduced.”^
(cf. siame).
si4 [sí] vb.
to smoke (i.e. cigarette or pipe):
Ọ si esiga“He smokes cigarettes.”
si-kaẹn [sìkã̀ɛ̃] vb.
(< si2 ― kaẹn) to be or become sound and strong.
si-kẹẹ [sikɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
(< si2 ― kẹẹ) to be close to.
si-koko [sìkòkó] vb.
(< si2 ― koko) to assemble.
si-kuẹn [sìkwɛ̃́] vb.
(< si2 ― kuẹn) to crouch; to fold over; to bend.
si-khua [sìxwá] vb.
(< si2 ― khua) to hinge (something); to hold in place.
si-mama [sìmàmá] vb.
(< si2 ― mama) to crowd together; to become jammed together.
si-yo [sìyó] vb.
(< si2 ― yo) to move away, move off.
siamẹ1 [syámɛ̃̀] vb.
(< si3 ― amẹ) to emaciate.
siamẹ2 [syámɛ̀] vb.
(< si1 ― amẹ) to cause rain to fall (usually by magical means).
sie1 [sìé] vb.
to be dark (in shade or complexion).
Ovbi ẹre sie sẹ mwẹn“Her child is darker than me.”
(also siere).
sie2 [sìé] vb.
to lower (something) down (e.g. a load carried on the head, or a pot on the fire).
Ọ sie ihẹ ne ọ mu“She put down the load that she was carrying.”
siere [sìěɽě] vb.
to be black:
Ọvbokhan na siere“This child is black in complexion.”
(also sie1 ).
siẹn1 [ɛ̀yɛ̃́] vb.
to deny.
siẹn2 [syɛ̃́] vb.
1. to drain:
Siẹn amẹ ọnrẹn kua“Drain out the water.”
2. to flow steadily; to drip:
Ameve siẹn kua vbe aro ọre“Tears are streaming from her eyes”
3. to be drenched:
Egbe ẹre siẹn ne ọfo“His body is drenched with sweat.”
siẹn3 [sĩ̀ɛ̃́] vb.
1. (of structure) to collapse:
Ekẹn siẹn rhu ẹre“The walls collapsed on him.”
2. (of a crowd): to pour from all sides:
Iran siẹn rhu ẹre“They crowded on him.”
siẹnrẹnrẹn1 [sĩɛ̃̀ɽ̃ɛ̃̀ɽ̃ɛ̃̀] adv.; adj.
1. describes clarity of light or flame:
Ọ baa siẹnrẹnrẹn“It is shining brightly and clearly.”
; 2. (with ye) describes something very clean and spotless.
siẹnrẹnrẹn2 [sĩɛ̃́ɽ̃ɛ̃́ɽ̃ɛ̃́] adv.; adj.
(of water): clean and pure:
amẹ na hianrẹn siẹnrẹnrẹn“This water is extremely clean and clear.”
siẹnsiẹn [sĩ́ɛ̃́sĩ́ɛ̃́] adj.
describes things that are thin and long (e.g. thin fingers or thin and long plantains).
siẹnsiẹnẹnsiẹn [syɛ̃̀syɛ̃̀ɛ̃̀syɛ̃̀] int.
(used as part of the introduction of a tale or a story): implies that the story is very interesting:
Okha ọkpa siẹnsiẹnẹnsiẹn na doo rre . . . ! “Once came a very interesting story . . . !”
sigẹnsigẹn [sígɛ̃́sígɛ̃́] adj.
describes something or someone very lean.
sihuan [sìhũã́] vb.
(< so ― ihuan) “to sing a song”: to sing.
sikan [sìkã́] vb.
1. to struggle (with somebody or thing):
Ọ sikan lẹlẹe“He kept up the struggle with him (in a fight)”^
2. to gum to something; to be stuck to:
ukpọn ọnrẹn sikaẹn mu aga“His cloth stuck to the chair”
3. to be tough; hard to chew (of meat).
sikansikan [sìkã̀sìkã̀] adv.; adj.
describes something tough (i.e. to cut or separate) or stringy.
silasila [sìlàsìlà] adv.; adj.
describes something untidy and disorderly. (also silosilo).
silo [sìló] vb.
plural or reiterative sense of si2:
Ọ silo emwin ẹnrẹn hia kpaọ“He moved all his things away.”
Ọ silo ehia khian“He is dragging all along.”
sin1 [sĩ́] vb.
to miss (e.g. in a game); to fail to perform according to the rules (such as dropping a dice, etc.). It usually means that the player loses points and also his turn.
sin2 [sĩ́] vb.
(usually occurs as a second vb.) ― to rub on; to smear:
Ọ ya iruẹn sin mwẹn ukpọn“She used dirt to rub on my cloth: She soiled my cloth with dirt.”
sin3 [sĩ́] adv.
for a long time; for long:
Ọ khẹẹ ruẹ sin“He has been waiting for you for a long time.”
sin-aro [sĩã́ɽò] vb.
to make faces (usually associated with brides); to put on a haughty look.
sin-ẹro [syɛɽo] vb.
(with ẹro) to be diligent; to be perceptive (same as wẹro).
sinmwin1 [sĩ̀ɱĩ́] vb.
to struggle (with somebody else) to obtain something; to obtain by force:
Ọ sinmwin ẹnrẹn emiowo rhie“He obtained the piece of meat from him by force.”
sinmwin2 [sĩ̀ɱĩ́] vb.
1. to cure; to heal with medication:
Ọ sinmwin ẹnrẹn vbe emiamwẹn ne ọ khuọnmwin“He cured him of his illness.”
2. to save; to protect:
Osanobua sinmwin ima vbe obọ ẹbee“God saved us from danger.”
sinmwin3 [sĩ̀ɱĩ́] vb.
to have as a younger sibling:
Ozo ẹre Atiti sinmwin kegbe“Ozo is the person Atiti has as her immediate younger sibling.”
sioi [síóí] adv.; adj.
describes something that’s solitary and gracelessly erect:
Ọ mudia vba sioi“It stood there, alone and awkward.”
siosa [syòsá] vb.
(< si2 ― osa) “to draw a debt”: to demand payment of a debt.
sira [sìɽà] adv.
in the presence of:
Ọ sira mwẹn gbẹe“He, in my presence, beat her: He beat her in front of me.”
(also sirra).
sire [sìɽé] pre-vb.
“Is it true that . . . ?” “Is it the case that?”: occurs in an interrogative clause to indicate that special confirmation is desired regarding the action or state expressed in the verb:
Ọ sire ma? Is it “really”
good? (somewhat like “gele” ― “really”,“truly”).
sirra [sìrà] adv.
cf. sira.
siwu [síwù] vb.
to make the tribal tattoo-marks.
so1 [só] vb.
1. to prick; to pierce slightly:
Igban so mwẹn owẹ“a thorn has pricked my foot”
2. to jab (with a pointed object, such as a nail, or with a fist):
Ọ so ekpa ye ọre ẹkoo“He jabbed her on the stomach with his fist”
3. to tap fluid (e.g. from a boil, or the trunk of a tree).
so2 [só] vb.
1. (with obọ (hand) as obj.) to touch in hand-shake (usually occurs as one word with its direct obj., obọ when they are not discontinuous):
Iran ghi sobọ nẹ, iran na tota“After they had shaken hands, they sat down.”
Ọ sọ mwẹn obọ“He shook hands with me”
2. to grip (usually with the hands):
Ọ so obọ ye ọre ukpọn“He gripped her cloth (with her hands)”
so3 [só] vb.
to shout; to make a loud cry or vocal sound:
Ọ so dee vbe umọdia“She shouts as she approaches in the distance.”
so4 [só] vb.
(with ihuan as obj.) to sing; to utter musically (usually occurs with its generic object, ihuan, as one word):
Ọ sihuan ẹsẹse“She sings songs very well: She sings very well.”
; 2. (of asukpẹ): to have the hiccups:
Asukpẹ so mwẹn“I have the hiccups.”
so5 [só] vb.
1. (with ebiebi “darkness” as subj.): to fall; to occur:
Ebiebi ma he so“Darkness has not fallen.”
2. to effect; to hatch; to make:
so uma“to make a conspiracy”
sobọ [sòbɔ́] vb.
cf. so2.
sogho1 [sòɣó] vb.
to rinse (container, mouth, etc.) by filling with water or other liquid, shaking and emptying; to cleanse from impurities by rinsing:
Sogho akhe nii u ke samẹ yọ“Rinse that pot before you store water in it.”
sogho2 [sòɣó] vb.
to cause something to rattle; to cause a rattling noise by shaking something:
Ghẹ ghi sogho emwin yọ mwẹn ehọ“Stop rattling things in my ears.”
sogho3 [sòɣó] vb.
same as logho.
soghosogho1 [sóɣósóɣó] n.
cf. esoghosogho.
soghosogho2 [sóɣósóɣó] adv.
1. describes a rattling noise;
2. same as loghologho.
sokpan1 [sòkpã́] conj.
1. but:
Ọ yẹẹ mwẹn, sokpan ígho mwẹn i gba re“I like it, but my money is not enough to buy it.”
2. unless:
Ẹi yo sókpan u gbẹe“She will not go unless you beat her.”
sokpan2 [sòkpã́] vb.
to make an exception of:
Gbe enena ne u sokpan enikẹre“Beat these (ones) and exempt the rest.”
solo1 [sòló] vb.
1. plural or reiterative sense of so1 and so3:
Emwin solo iran owẹ“Things pricked their feet.”
Ibieka nii gha solo“Those children are shouting.”
solo2 [sòló] vb.
to pick one by one with a pointed obj. (e.g. of birds eating grain).
sosẹ [sósɛ̀] vb.
cf. sẹ3.
sotọ [sótɔ̀] vb.
(< sẹ ― otọ) “to reach the ground”: to be imminent; soon to happen:
Emwiunkpo sotọ nẹ“The New-Year is at hand.”
sọguọ [sɔ̀gwɔ́] adj.
soft, tender, and immature:
Ọvbokhan sọguọ he nọ“He is yet a tender and immature child.”^
(also sọguọsọguọ).
sọguọsọguọ [sɔ̀guɔ̀sɔ̀guɔ̀] adj.
describes things soft, tender and delicate on account of being yet young.
sọn1 [sɔ̃́] vb.
1. to sprout;
2. to grow high or bushy (used of grass and hair).
sọn2 [sɔ̃́] vb.
to take or consume time and or energy (usually occurs in neg. clauses).
Ẹi sọn iran ruẹe foo“It will not take time before they complete it.”
sọnnọ [sɔ̃̀nɔ̃́] vb.
1. to irritate; to aggravate:
Emwin ne ọ ru sọnnọ mwẹn gbe“What she does irritates me a lot.”
2. to feel resentful toward; to feel aversion toward:
Ẹi sọnnọ ọmwan rhọkpa“She does not resent anybody.”
sọọ [sɔ̀ɔ́] vb.
1. to tear or be turn; to rip (e.g. of cloth or paper);
2. to split into pieces (e.g. of wood with an axe):
Ọ ya ughamwan sọọ erhan nii“He split the wood into pieces with an axe.”
sọsọsọ [sɔ̀sɔ̀sɔ̀] adv.
1. excessively foamy (e.g. soapy water):
Evbakhuẹ na hu sọsọsọ“This soap foams very much.”
2. describes the intensity of grave anger:
Ohu mu ẹnrẹn sọsọsọ“He is extremely angry.”
sọtẹ [sɔ́tɛ̀] vb.
1. to defy;
2^.^ to rebel against.
sọyẹnmwẹn [sɔ́ỹɛ̃̀ɱɛ̃̀] vb.
to rejoice; to make merriment.
su1 [sú] vb.
1. to guide; to lead; to direct.;
2. to escort:
su mwẹn sẹ umọdia vbodọ“Escort me to the lane over there.”
3. to tend livestock:
su2 [sú] vb.
to pay as interest on money borrowed or in forbearance of debt:
Ikpọn eheha ẹre ọ hae vbe uki ne ọ ya su ig͡ho ne ọ mọmọe rre“He pays three pounds a month as interest on the money he borrowed.”
sua [sùá] vb.
cf. to push, to shove:
Ọ sua mwẹn gbotọ“He pushed me down.”
(cf. rrua).
suakpa [swákpá] vb.
to make a click with the thumb and middle finger as part of the gesture of denouncement or disgust.
suẹn [sũ̀ɛ̃́] vb.
to begin, to initiate:
Ọ suẹn okhian nẹ“He has started to walk.”
suku [sùkú] vb.
(with aro as obj.): squeeze; to wrinkle:
Ọ suku aro“He squeezed his face: he frowned.”
sukusuku [sùkùsùkù] adv.; adj.
unpleasantly twisted, such as a frown or a grimace:
Ọ ru aro sukusuku: “He made a grimace.”
sukpẹ [sùkpɛ́] vb.
(with owẹ as obj.) to limp:
Ọ sukpe owẹ dee“He is approaching with a limp.”
sulele [súlèlé] adv.
(with mu) to carry ― usually a person across the shoulder with legs straddled around the neck.
suma [súmã̀] vb.
(< se1 ― uma) “to make a conspiracy” to conspire:
Iran suma gbẹe“They conspired and killed him.”
sun1 [sṹ] vb.
1. to move slowly; to be slow:
Ọ sun gbe“He is very slow.”
to crawl.
sun2 [sṹ] vb.
to be sticky or glutinous.
Ọ sun vbe ọdan“It is sticky like gum.”
sun3 [sṹ] vb.
to have a smooth consistency; to be free of granular or other solid contents (e.g. of wellpounded yam):
Ema na ma sun; ikpẹ vuọẹn“This pounded-yam is not smooth; it is full of lumps.”
sunnọ [sũ̀nɔ̃́] vb.
pl. or reiterative sense of sun1:
Iran sunnọ gbe“They are very slow.”
Egilẹ hia sunnọ kua“All the snails have crawled away.”
sunnọsunnọ [sũ̀nɔ̃̀sũ̀nɔ̃̀] vb.
describes a very slow, lifeless gait.
sunsun [sũ̀sṹ] vb.
to be blurred; to be dim (of perception):
Ehia sunsun yọ mwẹn aro“They have all become blurred in my eyes. (I am confused about them).”
sunu [sùnṹ] vb.
to happen; to occur.
Nodẹ ẹre ọ sunu“It was yesterday that it happened.”
suo [sùó] vb.
to collapse; to cave in (e.g. of walls or the ground).
suuun [sṹṹṹ] adv.
with a fixed gaze, or prolonged silence.
susẹ [susɛ] vb.
to be in poverty; to suffer.