ka1 [ká] aux.
1. indicates that “the subject” of the clause was first to perform the action in the verb:
mẹ ọ ka rre“I came first”
2. that the action had been performed before in the past:
Ma ka rri ẹvbo naa yi“We had come to this town before.”
ka2 [ká] vb.
to recount all the evil deeds committed as a witch, or practitioner of other strong and evil forces; to confess to evil doings.
ka3 [ká] vb.
to count; to reckon:
Ka iran ghee deghẹ iran gbae“Count them to see whether they are correct.”
ka4 [ká] vb.
to dry; to be crisp:
eka ne ọ fiaẹn ma ka“The bean-cake that she fried was not crisp!”
ka5 [ká] vb.
to buy palm wine (or other kinds of drinks):
Ọ ka ọgọ ayọn eha gie arowa ọre“He bought and brought three bottles of wine to his master.”
kaa1 [kàá] vb.
to make dry; to cause to become crisp:
Iran gha kaa ehẹn vbe ovẹn: “They are drying fish in the sun.”
kaa2 [kàá] vb.
to carve (e.g. a piece of wood).
kaa [káa] aux.
(< ka-gha) same as ka (adv.).
Iran ọ kaa sẹ ẹvbo naa“They were the first to come to this town”
kaan1 [kã̀ã́] vb.
1. to touch;
2. to pertain to; to concern:
Ẹmwẹn na kaan mwẹn“This matter concerns me.”
kaan2 [kã̀ã́] vb.
(of gun, pipe, etc.), to load; to fill with relevant substance:
Ọ kaan ukoko ne ọse ọre si“He filled a pipe for his friend to smoke.”
ọ kaan osisi mu gọ“He loaded a gun and placed it by.”
kada [kádà] idiom.
a greeting formula expressed by males to their elders after a meal as a mark of respect and gratitude. It is also expressed as a good-will greeting to an elder when he sneezes.
kadesẹ [kádèsɛ̀] adv.
(< ke2 ― adesẹ). to be located between; to be in the middle of; to be at the centre of. (also kadesẹneva).
kadesẹneva [kàdèsɛ̀névà] adv.
cf. kadesẹ.
kae [kàé] vb.
the cry of a squirrel.
kaẹn [kã̀ɛ̃́] vb.
1. to construct or build with wood;
O kaẹn ùkhuerhe mẹ“He constructed a stool for me.”
2. to nail something; to attach things together with a nail:
Ọ kaẹn erhan nii mu ẹkhu-orere mẹ: “He nailed that wood to the front door for me.”
kaka [kàká] vb.
1. to become dry; to be dehydrated (e.g. of leaves becoming dry and crisp).
kakabọ [kàkàbɔ́] adv.
very much; exceedingly:
Ọ kakabọ tan: “He is very tall.”
kalọ [kàlɔ́] vb.
to stab repeatedly; to chop down:
Izigha ya ọpia kalọ iran vbe odẹ: “A highway robber stabbed them with a machete on the way.”
kalokalo [kálókáló] adj.; adv.
(used with the verbs sie, bi, or ye)^ describes profound darkness:
Ọ bi kalokalo: “It is extremely black.”
kan [kã́] vb.
to be difficult; to be tough:
ẹghẹ naa ghi kan gbe“These times are now very tough: These are difficult times.”
kan [kã́ã̀] adj.
bare; empty.:
Ghẹ ya ẹko kan la odẹ“Don’t go on the road with an empty stomach: don’t go without eating first”
kan [kã̀] vb.
in the idiom kan ukọ: to query; to find fault with.
kangunkangun [kã́gṹkã́gṹ] adj.
(used with the vb. ye) very lean; emaciated.
Ọ ye kangunkangun“He is very lean.”
kankanankan [kã́kã́ã́kã́] adv.
1. (with van: “to shout”): loudly;
2. (with gba: “to tie”) tightly, firmly:
Ọ ya irri gba ẹre kankanankan“He tied it with a rope very firmly”
3. (with bi or siere: “dark”): profoundly:
Ọ bi kankanankan: “It is profoundly dark”
kanro [kã́ɽò] vb.
to feel unenthusiastic about (doing something) to feel reluctant about:
Eki na waa kọn mwẹn aro ne a yo: “I am not at all eager about going to this market.”
kanmwan [kã̀ɱã́] vb.
to be small.
kanyan [kã́ỹã́] adj.
unlikely; remote; unusual, etc. (usually used with the verb ye):
Ọ ye kanyan vbe aro mwẹn“It strikes me as being unrealizable.”
karo [káɽò] vb.
“to be in front of”
1. to precede; to be ahead of;
2. to be first:
Ozo ọ karo vbe edanmwẹn ne iran ruu“Ozo was first in the examination that they did.”
katakpi [káták͡pì] n.
the name of a mythical being that had no limbs; thus the word describes anything or anybody that looks fat and stout and tends to roll along rather than walk.
katekate [kátékáté] adv.
especially; particularly:
Iwinna rẹn keghi yẹ arowa ọre ẹsẹse, katekate ne obọ na wa vbe kẹ ọre“His work was pleasing to his master very much, especially as he was also very fast.”
kayọn [kàyɔ̃́] vb.
(< ka4 ― ayọn) to buy wine.
ke1 [ké] vb.
1. to be located next to; to be near:
Owa mwẹn ọ ke ọghẹe“My house is next to his.”
ke2 [ké] vb.
to be located at, relative to something else; to occupy a space (relative to something else):
Ọ we ne imẹ ke odaro ne irẹn ke iyeke: “He said that I should stay in front while he stays behind.”
ke3 [ké] aux.
(often occurs with ghi) sequential marker: indicates that the action in the main verb occurred sequentially after the action in the verb of the preceding clause:
Ọ ghi sẹ evba, ọ ke totaa: “When he got there; he then sat down.”
ke4 [ké] prep.
1. (occurs with verbs of motion, such as yo, rre, dee, etc.) indicates source or origin of motion: from:
Igue ọ ke rri iwinna: “It is from the village that he comes to work.”
2. general “source” notion (i.e. in respect to time and place).
Ẹgogo eva ẹre ọ ke winna: “He has been working from 2 p.m., i.e. he has been working since 2 p.m.”
ke5 [kè] conj.
serves to link up nouns, pronouns and noun phrases:
Ọ tie enọdiọn ke enekherhe“He called both the older and younger”
(cf. kevbe).
kee [kèé] vb.
1. to support on a potrest (to cook):
Mu iyan kee ne a re“Put the yam on the pot-rest so that we may eat: Cook the pot of yam (over the fire) on the pot-rest for us to eat.”
2. to prop up, to hold up in place:
Ọ ya erhan kee ẹre“He supported it with a stick.”^
keegbe [kèègbé] vb.
(< kee ― egbe) “to prop up self”: to assume falsely a higher status than one is entitled to.
keere [kèérè] vb.
to be appropriate; to be good; to be suitable:
Ọ keere ye ukpo ne iran muẹrẹn yi naa“He is appropriate for this post that they have now put him.”
Ọ keere ne a gha ta emwanta“It is good for us to be telling the truth:”^ “It is good for us to speak the truth always”
kegbe [kègbé] vb.
(< ke1-egbe): “to be near each other”: to be located next to each other; to be neighbours.
Iran bọ owa kegbe“They built houses next to each other.”
keke [kèké] vb.
to jostle; to push against:
Ọ keke ẹre fi ẹkhokho“He jostled her into a corner.”
kevbe [kèʋè] conj.; adv.
a conjunction linking up nouns, pronouns and noun phrases:
amwẹn ọnrẹn kevbe ivbi ẹre“his wife and children”
; 2. also, as well:
Ọ kevbe re ọduẹki“He is also a trader”
kẹeke [kɛékè] adv.
(< ke-ẹre-ke) along with; together with;
Ozo kẹeke amwẹn ọnrẹn ẹre ọ gba gha rrie ugbo“Ozo together with his wife it was that went to the farm: It was Ozo and his wife that went together to the farm.”
kẹẹ [kɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
1. to be prompt; to be quick:
obọ kẹẹ iran vbe iwinna na“Hand was quick for them in this work: they were quick in completing this work”
2. (as an idiom with obọ):
obọ kẹẹ nẹ: “The work has already been completed”
. (also
“Ọ kẹẹ nẹ”: “It is already completed”
.) Thus:
ọ kẹẹ iran ya ruẹe nẹ i ke sẹ evba. “They were already done with doing it before I got there: They had already completed doing it before I got there.”
kẹẹ [kɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
to remain; to be left over:
ígho ne ọ kẹẹre ọna khinHere is the money that was left over
. (also kẹrre).
kẹkan [kɛ̀kã̀]
MM:1. adj.
1. bare:
owẹ kẹkanbare foot
2. ineffective; inconsequential:
eve kekan ọ viẹ“He is crying in vain; She is crying ineffectively.”
MM:2. adv.
only; merely:
gu ẹre gui kẹkan ne u ghẹ gbẹe“Merely reprimand him; don’t beat him.”
kẹkẹ [kɛ̀kɛ́] vb.
to rot; to become rotten.
kẹkẹrẹkẹ [kɛ̀kɛ̀ɽɛ́kɛ̀] adv.
describes the crowing of a rooster.
kẹnnẹkẹnnẹ [kẽ̀nẽ̀kẽ́nẽ̀] adj.
(with gbẹnnẹ) describes a spotty design (cf. ekẹnnẹkẹnnẹ).
kẹrre [kɛ̀ré] vb.
to remain; to be left over. (cf. kẹẹ).
(e)kẹtẹkẹtẹ [kɛ́tɛ́kɛ́tɛ́] n.
ass; donkey. (cf. ekẹtẹkẹtẹ).
kẹtin [kɛ̀tín] vb.
(< koo ― ẹtin) “to gather strength”:
1. to rest, to relax;
2. to give up; to stop;
3. to die.
kie1 [kìé] vb.
1. to open; to unfold (e.g. ekharha: umbrella);
2. to display:
O do ya ukpọn ne ọ da dẹ kie vbe ẹki“She came to display her newly-acquired cloth in the market.”
kie2 [kìé] vb.
to remove:
Ọ kie ukpọn hin ovẹn rre: She removed the clothes from the line
kiekie [kyékyè] adv.
(< ke ― iyeke) to be last (in doing something)
Rẹn ọ kiekie rre. “He was the last to come.”
kigho [kíɣó] vb.
(< ka ― ígho) “to count money”; to reckon money.
kii [kìí] vb.
1. to coil; to curl up (e.g. of reptiles),;
2. to coagulate or thicken (e.g. of owo ― a kind of sauce; or palm-oil):
Ofigbọn na kii mu ọgọ“This palm oil has coagulated and stuck to the bottle.”
kin1 [kĩ́] vb.
1. to tie tightly; to bind:
Ọ ya okun kin ẹbo“She used a twine to tie the bag tightly.”
2. to plait hair with thread.
kin2 [kĩ́] vb.
1. to look for (fallen) fruits at the base of a tree;
2. to examine traps for catch.
kinmwin [kĩ̀ɱĩ́] vb.
to hit hard; to strike hard.
kinna [kĩ̀nã́] vb.
to watch cautiously; to spy on.
kinnegbe [kĩ̀nẽ̀gbé] vb.
(< kinna ― egbe) “to watch body cautiously”^: to be on the alert for one’s safety; to be mindful about one’s safety.
kinnọ [kĩ̀nɔ̃́] vb.
1. to coil around (iter, sense of kii 1.);
2. to bind with rope:
Iran ya irri kinnọ ẹnrẹn mu erhan“They bound him to a tree with rope”
kiokiokio [kyòkyòkyò] adv.
describes a peel of laughter.
kisi [kìsì] adv.
(with saan ― “to jump”) smartly; nimbly:
Ọ sanrẹn kisi: “He jumped nimbly”
kiyeke [kíyèkè] vb.
(< ke2 ― iyeke) “to be located at the back”, to be behind or at the back of.
kiza [kìzá] vb.
1. to be senseless; to be stupid;
2. to be mad.
ko1 [kó] vb.
to hold a meeting; to congregate:
Iran gha ko vbene iran khian ya suẹn ọnrẹn hẹẹ: “They are meeting to decide how they will set about starting it.”
2. aux. indicates that the action in the main verb was performed by more than one person:
Iran hia ọ ko rri ọre“They all ate it together; or, They all joined in eating it.”
(also koko).
ko2 [kó] vb.
to make aload pad:
ọ ghi ko ne, ọ na mu ihe yan uhunmwun: “After she had made a load-pad, she lifted the load on her head.”
kodaro [kòdárò] vb.
(< ke2 ― odaro) to be in front. (also karo).
koikoi [koikoi] adv.
describes the sound of the pestle hitting the mortar during the pounding of yam or other meal.
kokerhẹn [kòkéřɛ̃̀] vb.
(< koko1 ― erhẹn) “to assemble five” ― to make a fire.
kokẹtin [kòkɛ̀tĩ́] vb.
(< koko1 ― ẹtin) “to gather strength” ― to rest; to take a break (from labour) (also kẹtin).
koko1 [kòkó]
MM:1. vb.
to gather together; to assemble; to collect:
Ọ na koko iran ígho viọ: “He collected their money and took it.”
(Used only in the transitive sense).
MM:2. adv.
same as ko1:
Iran koko kpaọ“They left together”
koko2 [kòkó] vb.
1. to care for; to tend:
Rẹn ọ koko ọmọ mẹ: She is the one who tends the children for me
2. to feed; to provide for.
kokomẹmẹ [kókómɛ̃̀mɛ̃̀] n.
cucumber (cf. Engl.).
kokooko [kókóókó] adv.; adj.
(used with the verb ye):
1. describes something that is very solid and firm;
2. also describes something that is very dry and crisp.
koo [kòó] vb.
to set fractured bones.
kotọ [kótɔ̀] vb.
to be underneath or below.
koyọ [kóyò] int.
a general greeting formula; it expresses a wide variety of sentiments ranging from general good will to sympathy and affection.
kọ [kɔ́] vb.
1. to plant; to grow something;
2. (with ẹbọ ― “a god”) to put up a shrine for:
Ọ kọ olokun ne amwẹn ọnrẹn“He installed an olokun shrine for his wife”
kọlọ [kɔ̀lɔ́] vb.
to pick (fruit or leaves) from a tree; to pluck.
kọn1 [kɔ̃́] vb.
to be foolish; to be senseless.
Ọ kọn sẹẹ ẹwe“He is foolish more than a goat: He is more foolish than a goat.”
kọn2 [kɔ̃́] vb.
(of humans) to crawl around on all fours; (of animals) to graze.
kọnkọn [kɔ̃̀kɔ̃́] vb.
(pl. ref.) to be big in size:
Iyan ne u dẹ rre na waa kọnkọn“These yams that you bought and brought are very big.”
kọnyọn [kɔ̃̀ỹɔ̃̀] adv.
describes a kind of look (occurs with ghee: to look) to look at with an evil eye; to glare at:
Ọ gha ghe mwẹn kọnyọn“He is glaring at me.”
ku1 [kú] vb.
to dip (in liquid); to immerse; to plunge:
Ọ ku ọbọ ye uwu akhe sa amẹ“He dipped his hand into the pot and collected some water.”
ku2 [kú] vb.
to lose in value; to be devoid of worth:
Ẹki ne ọ do ku gbe ẹre“The trading that he was doing has become worthless: he has gone bankrupt in his trading.”
ku3 [kú] vb.
to join with;
Iran ku kugbe rri ọre: “They joined together to eat it”
kua [kùá] xbl. part
out; away; off:
Amẹ tue kua vbe akhe: “water poured out of the pot”
Alimoi kharha kua vbe ekpanaku “Oranges dropped off from the plate.”
(cf. fua).
kuakuakua [kwàkwàkwà] adv.
describes a peal of laughter.
kuamẹ [kuámɛ̀] vb.
(< kue ― amẹ) “to allow water” ― to become soggy; to become unwholesomely or unpleasantly damp.
kuan1 [kũ̀ã́] vb.
1. to injure; to cause injury to; to afflict, or be afflicted:
Emwin kuan rẹn vbe oha“Something afflicted him in the bush.”
2. (usually as a second verb): to hit against:
Ọ mu obọ kuan ye egbekẹn“He hit his arm against the wall.”
kue1 [kwè] vb.
1. to agree to something:
Ọ kue ne ọ rhie vbe ọghẹe“He agreed for her to take from his own”
2. for a woman to allow a man to have sexual intercourse with her.
kue2 [kwé] adv.
it occurs before a verb to convert the clause into a question requiring comfirmation:
Ọ kue rre? “Did he come at all?”
Ọ kue rri evbare“Did he eat anything?”
Ẹẹn, ọ rri ekherhe“Yes, he ate a little.”
kue3 [kùé] prep.
on, over, at:
Amẹ sa kue Ọzo ukpọn“Water spilled on Ozo’s cloth”
Ekhae tue kue otọ“Sand poured on the floor”
. It is realised as kui in clause-final position:
Vbe ọ sa kui“Where did it pour?”
and as kuọ before mwẹn or mwan:
Amẹ tue kuọ mwẹn“Water poured on me.”
kuebe [kwèbé] vb.
(< ku2 ― ebe) “to be devoid of leaves”, (of a tree) loose leaves; to become bare.
kuẹi [kwɛi] adv.; adj.
describes something very small; iter.: kuẹikuẹi: very tiny.
kuẹki [kwɛ́kì] vb.
(< ku2 ― ẹki) “to be devoid of value in trade”;
1. to depreciate in value;
2. to become bankrupt.
kuẹ́n [kwɛ̃́] vb.
(occurs with dẹ: to buy): without paying: on credit:
Ọ dẹ ẹwu kuẹn vbe obọ mwẹn: “She bought a dress on credit from me.”
kùẹn [kwɛ̃̀ɛ̃́] vb.
to curl (also sikuẹn).
kuẹnkhun [kwɛ̃́xũ̀] vb.
(< kun-ekhun) “to form a cripple”: to become immobile; to be rendered motionless.
kuẹtin [kwɛ̀tĩ́] n.
cf. ketin.
kugbakẹghẹrẹ [kúgbakɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ] adv.
cf. ukugbakẹghẹrẹ.
kugbe1 [kùgbé] vb.
to join together; to unite (also kukugbe).
kugbe2 [kùgbé] adv.
kughudu [kúɣúdú] adj.
describes something small and deep, like a little bowl.
kukugbe [kùkùgbé] vb.
cf. kugbe1.
kukuku [kùkùkù] adv.
describes the look of sprouting new leaves:
Ebe erhan na wa họọn kukuku: “The leaves of this tree have spouted in swarms.”
kukhunmwun [kúxũ̀ɱù] vb.
(< ke2 ― ukhunmwun) to be above: to be on top of; to be higher than.
kulo [kùló] vb.
to be damaged; to be spoiled:
Ikẹkẹ na kulo nẹ; ẹi ghi gie a hiin. “This bicycle is now bad; it can no longer be ridden.”
kulu [kùlú] vb.
iter. of ku:
Iran kulu obọ ye uwawa zọlọ emiọwo ne i rrọọ viọ“They dipped their hands into the pot and picked out all the meat in it.”
kun [kṹ] vb.
to construct something; to fashion something:
Ọ kun imọto nẹẹ ya gha kuu“He constructed a (toy) car for him to play with.”
kuun [kũ̀ṹ] vb.
to package something; to pack together:
Ọ kuun emwin ẹnrẹn hia kpaọ“He packed all his things away.”
kuọ [kùɔ́] vb.
to faint; to become unconscious.
kurọọ [kùɽɔ̀ɔ̀] adv.; adj.
(used with the verb ye) dull, lifeless:
Edẹ nẹrẹ ye kurọọ“The day today is very dull.”