ka1 [ká] aux.
1. indicates that “the subject” of the clause was first to perform the action in the verb:
mẹ ọ ka rre ― “I came first”
2. that the action had been performed before in the past:
Ma ka rri ẹvbo naa yi ― “We had come to this town before.”
ka2 [ká] vb.
to recount all the evil deeds committed as a witch, or practitioner of other strong and evil forces; to confess to evil doings.
ka3 [ká] vb.
to count; to reckon:
Ka iran ghee deghẹ iran gbae ― “Count them to see whether they are correct.”
ka4 [ká] vb.
to dry; to be crisp:
eka ne ọ fiaẹn ma ka ― “The bean-cake that she fried was not crisp!”
ka5 [ká] vb.
to buy palm wine (or other kinds of drinks):
Ọ ka ọgọ ayọn eha gie arowa ọre ― “He bought and brought three bottles of wine to his master.”
kaa1 [kàá] vb.
to make dry; to cause to become crisp:
Iran gha kaa ehẹn vbe ovẹn: “They are drying fish in the sun.”
kaa2 [kàá] vb.
to carve (e.g. a piece of wood).
kaa [káa] aux.
(< ka-gha) same as ka (adv.).
Iran ọ kaa sẹ ẹvbo naa ― “They were the first to come to this town”
kaan1 [kã̀ã́] vb.
1. to touch;
2. to pertain to; to concern:
Ẹmwẹn na kaan mwẹn ― “This matter concerns me.”
kaan2 [kã̀ã́] vb.
(of gun, pipe, etc.), to load; to fill with relevant substance:
Ọ kaan ukoko ne ọse ọre si ― “He filled a pipe for his friend to smoke.”
ọ kaan osisi mu gọ ― “He loaded a gun and placed it by.”
kada [kádà] idiom.
a greeting formula expressed by males to their elders after a meal as a mark of respect and gratitude. It is also expressed as a good-will greeting to an elder when he sneezes.
kadesẹ [kádèsɛ̀] adv.
(< ke2 ― adesẹ). to be located between; to be in the middle of; to be at the centre of. (also kadesẹneva).
kadesẹneva [kàdèsɛ̀névà] adv.
kae [kàé] vb.
the cry of a squirrel.
kaẹn [kã̀ɛ̃́] vb.
1. to construct or build with wood;
O kaẹn ùkhuerhe mẹ ― “He constructed a stool for me.”
2. to nail something; to attach things together with a nail:
Ọ kaẹn erhan nii mu ẹkhu-orere mẹ: “He nailed that wood to the front door for me.”
kaka [kàká] vb.
1. to become dry; to be dehydrated (e.g. of leaves becoming dry and crisp).
kakabọ [kàkàbɔ́] adv.
very much; exceedingly:
Ọ kakabọ tan: “He is very tall.”
kalọ [kàlɔ́] vb.
to stab repeatedly; to chop down:
Izigha ya ọpia kalọ iran vbe odẹ: “A highway robber stabbed them with a machete on the way.”
kalokalo [kálókáló] adj.; adv.
(used with the verbs sie, bi, or ye)^ describes profound darkness:
Ọ bi kalokalo: “It is extremely black.”
kan [kã́] vb.
to be difficult; to be tough:
ẹghẹ naa ghi kan gbe ― “These times are now very tough: These are difficult times.”
kan [kã́ã̀] adj.
Ghẹ ya ẹko kan la odẹ ― “Don’t go on the road with an empty stomach: don’t go without eating first”
kan [kã̀] vb.
in the idiom kan ukọ: to query; to find fault with.
kangunkangun [kã́gṹkã́gṹ] adj.
(used with the vb. ye) very lean; emaciated.
Ọ ye kangunkangun ― “He is very lean.”
kankanankan [kã́kã́ã́kã́] adv.
1. (with van: “to shout”): loudly;
2. (with gba: “to tie”) tightly, firmly:
Ọ ya irri gba ẹre kankanankan ― “He tied it with a rope very firmly”
3. (with bi or siere: “dark”): profoundly:
Ọ bi kankanankan: “It is profoundly dark”
kanro [kã́ɽò] vb.
to feel unenthusiastic about (doing something) to feel reluctant about:
Eki na waa kọn mwẹn aro ne a yo: “I am not at all eager about going to this market.”
kanmwan [kã̀ɱã́] vb.
to be small.
kanyan [kã́ỹã́] adj.
unlikely; remote; unusual, etc. (usually used with the verb ye):
Ọ ye kanyan vbe aro mwẹn ― “It strikes me as being unrealizable.”
karo [káɽò] vb.
“to be in front of”
1. to precede; to be ahead of;
2. to be first:
Ozo ọ karo vbe edanmwẹn ne iran ruu ― “Ozo was first in the examination that they did.”
katakpi [káták͡pì] n.
the name of a mythical being that had no limbs; thus the word describes anything or anybody that looks fat and stout and tends to roll along rather than walk.
katekate [kátékáté] adv.
Iwinna rẹn keghi yẹ arowa ọre ẹsẹse, katekate ne obọ na wa vbe kẹ ọre ― “His work was pleasing to his master very much, especially as he was also very fast.”
kayọn [kàyɔ̃́] vb.
(< ka4 ― ayọn) to buy wine.
ke1 [ké] vb.
1. to be located next to; to be near:
Owa mwẹn ọ ke ọghẹe ― “My house is next to his.”
ke2 [ké] vb.
to be located at, relative to something else; to occupy a space (relative to something else):
Ọ we ne imẹ ke odaro ne irẹn ke iyeke: “He said that I should stay in front while he stays behind.”
ke3 [ké] aux.
(often occurs with ghi) sequential marker: indicates that the action in the main verb occurred sequentially after the action in the verb of the preceding clause:
Ọ ghi sẹ evba, ọ ke totaa: “When he got there; he then sat down.”
ke4 [ké] prep.
1. (occurs with verbs of motion, such as yo, rre, dee, etc.) indicates source or origin of motion: from:
Igue ọ ke rri iwinna: “It is from the village that he comes to work.”
2. general “source” notion (i.e. in respect to time and place).
Ẹgogo eva ẹre ọ ke winna: “He has been working from 2 p.m., i.e. he has been working since 2 p.m.”
ke5 [kè] conj.
serves to link up nouns, pronouns and noun phrases:
Ọ tie enọdiọn ke enekherhe ― “He called both the older and younger”
kee [kèé] vb.
1. to support on a potrest (to cook):
Mu iyan kee ne a re ― “Put the yam on the pot-rest so that we may eat: Cook the pot of yam (over the fire) on the pot-rest for us to eat.”
2. to prop up, to hold up in place:
Ọ ya erhan kee ẹre ― “He supported it with a stick.”^
keegbe [kèègbé] vb.
(< kee ― egbe) “to prop up self”: to assume falsely a higher status than one is entitled to.
keere [kèérè] vb.
to be appropriate; to be good; to be suitable:
Ọ keere ye ukpo ne iran muẹrẹn yi naa ― “He is appropriate for this post that they have now put him.”
Ọ keere ne a gha ta emwanta ― “It is good for us to be telling the truth:”^ “It is good for us to speak the truth always”
kegbe [kègbé] vb.
-egbe): “to be near each other”: to be located next to each other; to be neighbours.
Iran bọ owa kegbe ― “They built houses next to each other.”
keke [kèké] vb.
to jostle; to push against:
Ọ keke ẹre fi ẹkhokho ― “He jostled her into a corner.”
kevbe [kèʋè] conj.; adv.
a conjunction linking up nouns, pronouns and noun phrases:
amwẹn ọnrẹn kevbe ivbi ẹre ― “his wife and children”
; 2. also, as well:
Ọ kevbe re ọduẹki ― “He is also a trader”
kẹeke [kɛékè] adv.
(< ke-ẹre-ke) along with; together with;
Ozo kẹeke amwẹn ọnrẹn ẹre ọ gba gha rrie ugbo ― “Ozo together with his wife it was that went to the farm: It was Ozo and his wife that went together to the farm.”
kẹẹ [kɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
1. to be prompt; to be quick:
obọ kẹẹ iran vbe iwinna na ― “Hand was quick for them in this work: they were quick in completing this work”
2. (as an idiom with obọ):
obọ kẹẹ nẹ: “The work has already been completed”
“Ọ kẹẹ nẹ”: “It is already completed”
ọ kẹẹ iran ya ruẹe nẹ i ke sẹ evba. “They were already done with doing it before I got there: They had already completed doing it before I got there.”
kẹẹ [kɛ̀ɛ́] vb.
to remain; to be left over:
ígho ne ọ kẹẹre ọna khin ― Here is the money that was left over
. (also kẹrre).
owẹ kẹkan ― bare foot
2. ineffective; inconsequential:
eve kekan ọ viẹ ― “He is crying in vain; She is crying ineffectively.”
gu ẹre gui kẹkan ne u ghẹ gbẹe ― “Merely reprimand him; don’t beat him.”
kẹkẹ [kɛ̀kɛ́] vb.
to rot; to become rotten.
kẹkẹrẹkẹ [kɛ̀kɛ̀ɽɛ́kɛ̀] adv.
describes the crowing of a rooster.
kẹnnẹkẹnnẹ [kẽ̀nẽ̀kẽ́nẽ̀] adj.
(with gbẹnnẹ) describes a spotty design (cf. ekẹnnẹkẹnnẹ).
kẹrre [kɛ̀ré] vb.
to remain; to be left over. (cf. kẹẹ).
(e)kẹtẹkẹtẹ [kɛ́tɛ́kɛ́tɛ́] n.
ass; donkey. (cf. ekẹtẹkẹtẹ).
kẹtin [kɛ̀tín] vb.
(< koo ― ẹtin) “to gather strength”:
1. to rest, to relax;
2. to give up; to stop;
3. to die.
kie1 [kìé] vb.
1. to open; to unfold (e.g. ekharha: umbrella);
2. to display:
O do ya ukpọn ne ọ da dẹ kie vbe ẹki ― “She came to display her newly-acquired cloth in the market.”
kie2 [kìé] vb.
Ọ kie ukpọn hin ovẹn rre: She removed the clothes from the line
kiekie [kyékyè] adv.
(< ke ― iyeke) to be last (in doing something)
Rẹn ọ kiekie rre. “He was the last to come.”
kigho [kíɣó] vb.
(< ka ― ígho) “to count money”; to reckon money.
kii [kìí] vb.
1. to coil; to curl up (e.g. of reptiles),;
2. to coagulate or thicken (e.g. of owo ― a kind of sauce; or palm-oil):
Ofigbọn na kii mu ọgọ ― “This palm oil has coagulated and stuck to the bottle.”
kin1 [kĩ́] vb.
1. to tie tightly; to bind:
Ọ ya okun kin ẹbo ― “She used a twine to tie the bag tightly.”
2. to plait hair with thread.
kin2 [kĩ́] vb.
1. to look for (fallen) fruits at the base of a tree;
2. to examine traps for catch.
kinmwin [kĩ̀ɱĩ́] vb.
to hit hard; to strike hard.
kinna [kĩ̀nã́] vb.
to watch cautiously; to spy on.
kinnegbe [kĩ̀nẽ̀gbé] vb.
(< kinna ― egbe) “to watch body cautiously”^: to be on the alert for one’s safety; to be mindful about one’s safety.
kinnọ [kĩ̀nɔ̃́] vb.
1. to coil around (iter, sense of kii 1.);
2. to bind with rope:
Iran ya irri kinnọ ẹnrẹn mu erhan ― “They bound him to a tree with rope”
kiokiokio [kyòkyòkyò] adv.
describes a peel of laughter.
kisi [kìsì] adv.
― “to jump”) smartly; nimbly:
Ọ sanrẹn kisi: “He jumped nimbly”
kiyeke [kíyèkè] vb.
(< ke2 ― iyeke) “to be located at the back”, to be behind or at the back of.
kiza [kìzá] vb.
1. to be senseless; to be stupid;
2. to be mad.
ko1 [kó] vb.
to hold a meeting; to congregate:
Iran gha ko vbene iran khian ya suẹn ọnrẹn hẹẹ: “They are meeting to decide how they will set about starting it.”
indicates that the action in the main verb was performed by more than one person:
Iran hia ọ ko rri ọre ― “They all ate it together; or, They all joined in eating it.”
ko2 [kó] vb.
to make aload pad:
ọ ghi ko ne, ọ na mu ihe yan uhunmwun: “After she had made a load-pad, she lifted the load on her head.”
kodaro [kòdárò] vb.
(< ke2 ― odaro) to be in front. (also karo).
koikoi [koikoi] adv.
describes the sound of the pestle hitting the mortar during the pounding of yam or other meal.
kokerhẹn [kòkéřɛ̃̀] vb.
(< koko1 ― erhẹn) “to assemble five” ― to make a fire.
kokẹtin [kòkɛ̀tĩ́] vb.
(< koko1 ― ẹtin) “to gather strength” ― to rest; to take a break (from labour) (also kẹtin).
to gather together; to assemble; to collect:
Ọ na koko iran ígho viọ: “He collected their money and took it.”
(Used only in the transitive sense).
same as ko1
Iran koko kpaọ ― “They left together”
koko2 [kòkó] vb.
1. to care for; to tend:
Rẹn ọ koko ọmọ mẹ: She is the one who tends the children for me
2. to feed; to provide for.
kokomẹmẹ [kókómɛ̃̀mɛ̃̀] n.
cucumber (cf. Engl.).
kokooko [kókóókó] adv.; adj.
(used with the verb ye):
1. describes something that is very solid and firm;
2. also describes something that is very dry and crisp.
koo [kòó] vb.
to set fractured bones.
kotọ [kótɔ̀] vb.
to be underneath or below.
koyọ [kóyò] int.
a general greeting formula; it expresses a wide variety of sentiments ranging from general good will to sympathy and affection.
kọ [kɔ́] vb.
1. to plant; to grow something;
2. (with ẹbọ ― “a god”) to put up a shrine for:
Ọ kọ olokun ne amwẹn ọnrẹn ― “He installed an olokun shrine for his wife”
kọlọ [kɔ̀lɔ́] vb.
to pick (fruit or leaves) from a tree; to pluck.
kọn1 [kɔ̃́] vb.
to be foolish; to be senseless.
Ọ kọn sẹẹ ẹwe ― “He is foolish more than a goat: He is more foolish than a goat.”
kọn2 [kɔ̃́] vb.
(of humans) to crawl around on all fours; (of animals) to graze.
kọnkọn [kɔ̃̀kɔ̃́] vb.
(pl. ref.) to be big in size:
Iyan ne u dẹ rre na waa kọnkọn ― “These yams that you bought and brought are very big.”
kọnyọn [kɔ̃̀ỹɔ̃̀] adv.
describes a kind of look (occurs with ghee: to look) to look at with an evil eye; to glare at:
Ọ gha ghe mwẹn kọnyọn ― “He is glaring at me.”
ku1 [kú] vb.
to dip (in liquid); to immerse; to plunge:
Ọ ku ọbọ ye uwu akhe sa amẹ ― “He dipped his hand into the pot and collected some water.”
ku2 [kú] vb.
to lose in value; to be devoid of worth:
Ẹki ne ọ do ku gbe ẹre ― “The trading that he was doing has become worthless: he has gone bankrupt in his trading.”
ku3 [kú] vb.
to join with;
Iran ku kugbe rri ọre: “They joined together to eat it”
kua [kùá] xbl. part
out; away; off:
Amẹ tue kua vbe akhe: “water poured out of the pot”
Alimoi kharha kua vbe ekpanaku “Oranges dropped off from the plate.”
kuakuakua [kwàkwàkwà] adv.
describes a peal of laughter.
kuamẹ [kuámɛ̀] vb.
(< kue ― amẹ) “to allow water” ― to become soggy; to become unwholesomely or unpleasantly damp.
kuan1 [kũ̀ã́] vb.
1. to injure; to cause injury to; to afflict, or be afflicted:
Emwin kuan rẹn vbe oha ― “Something afflicted him in the bush.”
2. (usually as a second verb): to hit against:
Ọ mu obọ kuan ye egbekẹn ― “He hit his arm against the wall.”
kue1 [kwè] vb.
1. to agree to something:
Ọ kue ne ọ rhie vbe ọghẹe ― “He agreed for her to take from his own”
2. for a woman to allow a man to have sexual intercourse with her.
kue2 [kwé] adv.
it occurs before a verb to convert the clause into a question requiring comfirmation:
Ọ kue rre? “Did he come at all?”
Ọ kue rri evbare ― “Did he eat anything?”
Ẹẹn, ọ rri ekherhe ― “Yes, he ate a little.”
kue3 [kùé] prep.
on, over, at:
Amẹ sa kue Ọzo ukpọn ― “Water spilled on Ozo’s cloth”
Ekhae tue kue otọ ― “Sand poured on the floor”
. It is realised as kui
in clause-final position:
Vbe ọ sa kui ― “Where did it pour?”
and as kuọ
before mwẹn or mwan:
Amẹ tue kuọ mwẹn ― “Water poured on me.”
kuebe [kwèbé] vb.
(< ku2 ― ebe) “to be devoid of leaves”, (of a tree) loose leaves; to become bare.
kuẹi [kwɛi] adv.; adj.
describes something very small; iter.: kuẹikuẹi: very tiny.
kuẹki [kwɛ́kì] vb.
(< ku2 ― ẹki) “to be devoid of value in trade”;
1. to depreciate in value;
2. to become bankrupt.
kuẹ́n [kwɛ̃́] vb.
(occurs with dẹ: to buy): without paying: on credit:
Ọ dẹ ẹwu kuẹn vbe obọ mwẹn: “She bought a dress on credit from me.”
kùẹn [kwɛ̃̀ɛ̃́] vb.
to curl (also sikuẹn).
kuẹnkhun [kwɛ̃́xũ̀] vb.
(< kun-ekhun) “to form a cripple”: to become immobile; to be rendered motionless.
kuẹtin [kwɛ̀tĩ́] n.
kugbakẹghẹrẹ [kúgbakɛ̀ɣɛ́ɽɛ] adv.
kugbe1 [kùgbé] vb.
to join together; to unite (also kukugbe).
kugbe2 [kùgbé] adv.
kughudu [kúɣúdú] adj.
describes something small and deep, like a little bowl.
kukugbe [kùkùgbé] vb.
kukuku [kùkùkù] adv.
describes the look of sprouting new leaves:
Ebe erhan na wa họọn kukuku: “The leaves of this tree have spouted in swarms.”
kukhunmwun [kúxũ̀ɱù] vb.
(< ke2 ― ukhunmwun) to be above: to be on top of; to be higher than.
kulo [kùló] vb.
to be damaged; to be spoiled:
Ikẹkẹ na kulo nẹ; ẹi ghi gie a hiin. “This bicycle is now bad; it can no longer be ridden.”
kulu [kùlú] vb.
iter. of ku:
Iran kulu obọ ye uwawa zọlọ emiọwo ne i rrọọ viọ ― “They dipped their hands into the pot and picked out all the meat in it.”
kun [kṹ] vb.
to construct something; to fashion something:
Ọ kun imọto nẹẹ ya gha kuu ― “He constructed a (toy) car for him to play with.”
kuun [kũ̀ṹ] vb.
to package something; to pack together:
Ọ kuun emwin ẹnrẹn hia kpaọ ― “He packed all his things away.”
kuọ [kùɔ́] vb.
to faint; to become unconscious.
kurọọ [kùɽɔ̀ɔ̀] adv.; adj.
(used with the verb ye) dull, lifeless:
Edẹ nẹrẹ ye kurọọ ― “The day today is very dull.”