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    4. Falling Tone [ \ ]. This tone constitutes a glide from high to low
made within a single syllable: compare the English word “house”
spoken without any context.

    The mid-falls [ (4-1) ], [ (3-1) ], [ (2-1) ], indicate the same fall starting from the
1st, 2nd or 3rd mid tone. The difference between these mid-falls and
the falling variant of the low tone is probably one of stress. The mid-falls,
corresponding to certain semantic or grammatical functions, are marked
in this book, while the falling variant of the low tone is not (v. above).
Both high-low and mid-low falls are often very elusive and often can
only with difficulty be distinguished from high or mid tones.

    5. Rising Tone [ / ]. This tone usually rises from low to mid only
(v. above, the “lowered” variant of the high tone). In the perfect
form of verbs with a rising tone the author is not certain whether the
low start of the rise does not disappear entirely if an object or a verb
follows; some speakers seem to use a high tone only: in H. G. Amadasu’s
speech, however, there seemed to be a rise, the lower part of which
was very short: e.g. ɔxa-ɽe “he said” [ ˩ ˥ ˦ ] or [ ˩ / ˦ ]. A rise from mid
to high occurs in the last syllables of one type of questions and has
been marked in a few cases.

    Rising-falling tones have been marked by [ / ‿ ˩ ], falling-rising tones
by [ ˥ ‿ / ].


    Elision of vowels has heen marked by a hyphen, e.g. kp-akpata [ / ˥ ˥ ]
(from kpe [ / ] “to play” and akpata [ ˥ ˥ ˥ ] “harp”), and in difficult
cases, especially in monosyllables, the full form has been given in brackets
at the end of the example. Contraction of two vowels of the same quality
has been marked in the same way, only one vowel being written.
Nasalisation carried forward as a result of elision or contraction is
shown by a tilde (~), even when the vowel thus marked follows a
nasal. Where the group (verbnoun object) is not given as a contracted
or uncontracted whole with one tonal bracket, but each component
separately, another object is usually found between the two components,
e.g. mu [ ˥ ] ixo [ ˩ ˩ ] “to let blood”, ɔmu ʋ̃-ĩxo n-owiɛ [ ˩ ˥ ˩ ˩ \ ˥ ] “he let my
blood this morning”. The sign ‿ under the line has been used freely
in order to show that the final vowel of a word and the initial vowel of
the next one may form one syllable. In such cases, as well as in those
elisions in which a vowel is left on both sides of the hyphen, each vowel
has its separate tone-mark in order to facilitate grammatical analysis,
e.g. in ebi‿ɛba [ ˩ ˥ ˥ ˦ ] instead of [ ˩ ˥ ˦ ], or hɔ‿ukpɔ̃ [ ˩ ˥ ˩ ] instead of [ / ˩ ].
Only one sign, however, has been written in words formed out of two
separate elements, e.g. isiamɛ [ ˩ ˩ ˩ ] (si [ ˥ ]+amɛ [ ˩ ˩ ]).

    The vowels given in brackets may, or may not be heard; they have