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    There is also a flapped nasalised l (or flapped n), written ɽ̃ here.
It is written rnasalised vowel (i.e. rvowaln in existing orthography).

    r is trilled between vowels; fricative at the beginning of a word.

    rh is a voiceless fricative or voiceless trilled r.

    n is post-alveolar.

    ny palatal, seems to occur as a variant.

    nw a velar nasal with lip-rounding, seems to occur an a variant; the
velar nasal ŋ is found in onomatopoeic words only.

    ny has been written yvoweln, and nw, wvoweln, following
Yoruba tradition. More recently, ny and nw have been adopted, but
without omission of the final n.

    x and ɣ are respectively the voiceless and the voiced velar fricatives.
In publications they have been written kh and gh.

    kp and gb are labio-velars, i.e. sounds requiring a double closure―that
of the lips and of the back of the tongue against the soft palate, with
a simultaneous release of these stops. Dr I. C. Ward, who examined
the pronunciation of a Bini (J. E. Edegbe), and the author were of the
opinion that these sounds gave no impression of being implosive, but
had no experimental means of verifying this point.

    w is a semi-vowel.

    y is a voiced palatal fricative.

    (Palatal and velar semi-vowels are often used in diphthongs and
triphthongs, see above.)

    h needs no comment.


    Length is very rarely indicated in this dictionary; it is marked only
in the case of vowels, where it is shown by doubling the vowel symbol.
There are many pairs of verbs differentiated by a combination of vowel-
length and intonation, one type having a shorter vowel and a high
tone in the imperfect form, the other, a longer vowel and a rising tone,
e.g. ma [ ˥ ] “to fit”, ma [ / ] “to be good”. In these cases the difference
in length has not been indicated wherever the distinction is made clear
by the tone marks. In an orthography for Bini speakers in which tone-
marks are not used, it may be advisable to mark the difference in length

    Stress has not been indicated (but v. below).


    The following tones are found in Bini: high, low, mid, rising and
falling, rising-falling and falling-rising. The system adopted here for
marking the intonation of Bini words and sentences, which has been
used by Dr I. C. Ward in her study of intonation, makes use of five