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    The use of the nasalisation-mark has also been strictly limited in the
case of nasalised vowels preceding ʋ̃. Not every vowel preceding ʋ̃ is
nasalised: in the following cases they have little or no nasalisation―
(1) in nominal prefixes, such as u-ʋ̃ɛ [ ˩ \ ] “salt”, ɔ-ʋ̃a [ ˩ \ ] “man”;
(2) conjunctive pronouns, e.g. i-ʋ̃ɛ [ ˩ / ] “I have”; (3) originally un-
nasalised verbal stems in nouns of action of the type prefix ustem
ʋ̃ɛ, e.g. ukɔʋ̃ɛ [ ˩ \ ˩ ] “act of planting”. In all other cases, vowels
preceding ʋ̃ within the same word are nasalised. As ʋ̃ is rather frequent
in the nominal and verbal suffix -ʋ̃ɛ (assimilated -ʋ̃a, -ʋ̃i, -ʋ̃ɔ, -ʋ̃u), the
omission of the tilde (~) goes a long way towards simplifying the appear-
ance of the written word, and it should not be difficult to remember in
which words the vowel is nasalised if the above rule is kept in mind.

    It is, however, necessary to mark nasalisation in originally nasalised
vowels of verbal stems occurring in nouns of action of the type prefix u
stemʋ̃ɛ, e.g. ukɔ̃ʋ̃ɛ [ ˩ \ ˩ ] “foolishness”. (This word is derived from
kɔ̃ [ ˥ ] “to be foolish”, while the above-mentioned ukɔʋ̃ɛ is derived
from [ ˥ ] “to plant”.)

    The following diphthongs occur in Bini: ia, ie, , io, , ua, ue, ,
uo, , ae, ɔe, oi, and the nasalised ones iã, iɛ̃, iɔ̃, uã, uɛ̃, uɔ̃, aɛ̃, ɔɛ̃, oĩ.

    The triphthongs in Bini are iae, iɔe, ioi, uae, uɛe, uɔe, uoi; and the
nasalised ones iaɛ̃, iɔɛ̃, uaɛ̃, uɔɛ̃. Here, also, nasalisation is not marked
after nasals.

    Initial i and u are often semi-vowels, especially in other than very
slow speech; final e, ɛ̃, i are usually very short; in triphthongs the
middle part is usually the most prominent.


    The plosives p, t, k (slightly aspirated) and b, d, g need no comment,
nor do the labio-dental fricatives f and v.

    ʋ is a voiced bilabial fricative (written vb in literature already

    ʋ̃ is a nasalised bilabial fricative. It is a separate nasal phoneme,
distinct from ʋ and m (mw in literature already published).

    s and z are sometimes heard palatalised, e.g. in the speech of J. U.
Egharevba. s and z are substituted for Yoruba ʃ and j, and English
ch, sh and j in loan-words. There is evidence, however, that the more
advanced section of the community do pronounce English ch and j in
modern importations. The affricates j (dy) and occur, however, in
onomatopoeic words.

    There are two l-phonemes, one being the Fnglish “clear” l, and the
other a flapped variety, ɽ, which is a sound intermediate between r and l;
this has not been distinguished from r in existing publications, though
some Bini speakers are conscious of this inadequacy.